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Prologue

vernelliarandall2015I grew up in Texas during Jim Crow.  During that time going on long-distance road trips had a distinct flavor for Blacks and I remember it vividly - the packing enough food for the entire trip (no restaurants), the using the bathroom on the side of the road (no gas station bathrooms), the sleeping in the car on the side of the road (no motels). But my most vivid memory of my road trips in Texas was the sign I read every time we went through Greenville, Texas -

The Blackest Land,
The Whitest People

In many ways, institutional discrimination in law schools is really about maintaining the legal profession as "The Whitest Profession". 

 

 


Introduction

 

In 1984, when I attended law school, I was the only black student in the first year class. Everywhere I looked, day-in and day-out, a sea of white faces. The stress of law school was significant; the stress of being the only black person, at times became unbearable. At one point, when I had a most difficult day:

- a day when I had to listen to young white students discuss "loudly" the inherent unfairness of affirmative action a hundred times; 

-a day when my constitutional law professor decided to teach about hate crime and used a situation involving the words "Nigger" as an example

-a day when the contract professor used a case where a "welfare mother" had furniture repossessed and being a former and current  "welfare mother" I was positive that all eyes had turned to look at me.

-a day when for the first time a case in criminal law mentioned race and you guessed it - it was a black man raping a white woman

-a day when . . . so many racialized things happened.

      A day not much different than my other days - but I suddenly found the sea of whiteness unbearable. I want to get away, but I couldn't, I had a class. I wanted to cry - but where could I get some privacy.  I remember this day so clearly because I ended up in a bathroom stall crying my eyes out!  

      Law Schools, for the most part,  are a sea of whiteness.

      A sea of whiteness that contributes to the legal profession being more white than medicine. 

     It is a whiteness that is dangerous, not just to mental health of the individual person of color that gets caught in it, but also to our society.  It is an overwhelming display of power and control, maintaining a predominance of whiteness that is unearned and undeserved. 

     Just recently, the census bureau released information predicting that by the year 2050 we will be a nation of minorities.  According to the census bureau, in 2050, white non-Latinos will make up  50 percent of the population, with Latinos accounting for 24 percent, African Americans 15 percent and Asian Americans 8 percent.  While there are a number of problems with the statistics including 50% is still a majority,  for the purpose of this discussion I will accept this often cited mantra. People say it - "A Nation of Minorities," They say it with wonder, with expectation and with some amount of anxiousness.  News commentator comment on it but no one takes the next step and asks- So what?

     So what, if we will be a nation of minorities?

     Are we going to be a nation in which no group has a disproportionate share of wealth and power?

     Or will we be a de facto apartheid, South Africa? Like South Africa, will the wealth and power of a nation be centered in a numerical minority? Will the numerical minority become even more oppressive in order to maintain its position and control?    

     How will we be a truly represented nation in 2050, if we don't begin to transfer power and wealth now - which brings me back to the whiteness in law school. 

     One place we could start preparing for the future today, is by our law school admission patterns.  If law schools continue to be sea of whiteness, than power and wealth of this society will also continue to be white. The power brokers of tomorrow are the law students of today and right now

--The Whiteness is blinding

 


 

Methodology

The purpose of this report is to provide a way to measure to what extent non-minorities (whites)  are over-represented in  law schools, to provide a way of measuring changes and progress in equitable representation of minorities and  to provide a mechanism of comparing law schools  training of a racially representative group of lawyers as we move toward becoming a "nation of minorities".   

 

The objectives of this report are to:

measure the percentage of  "whites"  in each law  school measure the difference between the percentage of whites in the law school compared to the percentage of: 

regional and state population 21-39 (whites) regional and state LSAC Applications (whites).

compare the schools on each of these measures.

 

 

The information sources for this report  are:

 the 2004 ABA-LSAC official guide.  This is information reported to the ABA as a requirement of accreditation. The information in the guide is based on the 2002 application/admission cycle. (American Bar Association - Law School Admission Council). 

the LSAC National Statistical Report - 1998-99 through 2003-03. The 2002-03 tables ere used in this report. 

U.S. Census Bureau, American FactFinder, Census 2000 Summary File 1 (SF1) 100-Percent Data and Census 2000 Summary File 1 (SF1) 100-Percent Data, http://factfinder.census.gov/home/ (Last Visited: March 21, 2003).

 

The definitions used in this report are:

 

Whiteness is defined as caucasian plus unknown. Questions have been raised about the methodology of counting unknowns as whites.  Unknown presented a problem. If we did not include them as white, then schools  with large number of whites who failed to report their race would look less white  than  they actually were.  I decided to count unknown as white for several  reasons.

 First, to not penalize schools who have most of the applicants to their school reporting race.  Second, to not provide incentives for schools to move the reporting of large number of students into unknown.  Third, to have a consistent methodology. Fourth, this approach has been used by other diversity ranking system; see US News & World Report;  See generally, Michael Chang,  Quantitative approaches to measuring student body diversity:  Some examples and thoughts (Draft Paper: 2003); (pdf) (added: 04/17/04)

 

Law School-Age Population is age 21 to 39:

 U.S. Census Bureau,  American FactFinder, Census 2000 Summary File 1 (SF1) 100-Percent Data and Census 2000 Summary File 1 (SF1) 100-Percent Data, http://factfinder.census.gov/home/ (Last Visited: March 21, 2003). 

 

State LSAC application pool is the total number of  LSAC applications from persons who list a particular state as their home state.

 For example, of 99504  LSAC applications, 6797  were from Texas applicants.

 

 

Historically White Law Schools" (HWLS) (n=179). are schools who have historically been de facto white with no significant history of proportionately serving minorities.

  Specifically, excluded from the statistics are: 
  Howard University
  Inter-American University School of Law
  North Carolina Central University
  Pontifical Catholic University of Puerto Rico
  Southern University
  Texas Southern University (Thurgood Marshall)
  The University of Puerto Rico.
  University of Hawaii is included in the descriptive statistics but like University of Puerto Rico it primarily serves a state population which is minority. The question to be answer is whether the University of Hawaii is a historically white school. For the purpose of this report it is assumed that it is a HWLS.

 

Tier designation was based on the 2004 US News & World Report Rankings.

  The tier system is based on the U.S. News and World Report annual ranking of law schools. 
  While Deans, ABA, and LSAC all decry the ranking, Deans, faculty, alumni, students and applicants all rely on the ranking as a measure of external worth. 
  The Top 100 rank reported by US News is broken into tier 1 and tier 2.
 

 

Public/Private designation was based on the ABA Section of Legal Education and Admission to the Bar listing. 

  There are 74 historically White public law schools.
 

 

Regions are defined according to the ABA/LSAC Official Guide. There are 10 regions:

  Northeast
  New England
  Southcentral
  Southeast
  Midsouth
  Midwest
  Great Lakes
  Mountain West
  Northwest 
  Far West

 

  Percent Total Whiteness for each law school was calculated by adding total whiteness to total unknown. Whiteness does not include Foreign natitonsl.
 

For, example University of Texas School of Law has 74.2% caucasian, .7 foreign nationals and 4.9% unknown; minorities is 20.1%; Thus, University of Texas Total Whiteness is 79.1%

 

  Percent of  Total Whiteness in  LSAC Applications was calculated by adding percent of total whites (64.4%) to unreported race (3.7%)
  During the 2002 application cycle there were 99,504 applicants to the Fall 2003 class. Of those test-takers, only 68.1% were white (non-minorities).
  This report ranks all schools on the Percent of Total Whiteness in the school. (Ranking Listing)/(Alphabetical Listing).
 

 

Percent of State Whiteness in LSAC Applications was calculated by dividing the number  of applications from whites from a particular state by the number of total applications from the state. (Table)

 

For example, 6797 applications were from persons who state of residence was Texas; of those applications, 4043 were from whites. Thus,  4043 divided  by  6797  times 100 = 59.5%.

 

  Percent of Regional Whiteness in LSAC Application was calculated by dividing the number of applications from whites from a region by the number of total applications from the region.
  For example, the Southeast region consists of  Arkansas, Louisiana, Oklahoma, and Texas.  The total number of applications from the region is 9897. Of those applications, 6226 are from whites or 62.9%.  Thus, the percent of whiteness in LSAC Applications from the southeast region is 62.9% (added 04/18/04)

 

  Descriptive Statistics include mean, median, minimum, maximum.  The purpose of these statistics is to give the reader a 'picture' of the data collected and used.
  These statistics included only Historically White Law Schools" (HWLS) (n=179).
  Mean is the average, around which the data clusters. All data in a sample is used. It is appropriate for data measured at least at interval level.
  Median is the middle value when data in a sample is arranged in order. It is appropriate for data measured at least at ordinal level.
 

 

Correlation Statistics used was the Spearman Coefficient.  

  If a result is 'statistically significant', it implies a statistical test has been carried-out, and the probability of obtaining the observed data (or more extreme) by chance, is small – typically less than 0.05 or less than 5 chances out of a 100.

  




 

Limitations

When comparing schools for total whiteness, it was assumed that all schools pulled from the national pool of applications. That is, all schools application pool actually reflected 68% white.  To the extent that a school is a truly regional, state or local school then % total whiteness when compared to the availability of applicants could be skewed 

To the extent that "unknown" is a significant number of minorities, than the percentage of whites will be skewed upwarded and the calculations  will be not be valid for that particular school. However, the  State LSAC application pool nor the Law School age population represent the actual  application pool for a specific school. A school's actual application pool could be very different.State LSAC Application pool reflects the number of persons in the national LSAC pool who listed the named state as their home. While all the applicants from a particular state may not have applied to law school in their state, the number provides a good idea of the available pool. So, for example, Texas Tech has 85.7% white students. In 2002 there was 6797 LSAC applications from the state of Texas. Of those applications, 4043 or 59.5% were from white applicants.   Consequently, the disparity (excess whiteness) between whiteness in the student body and in the state application pool is  26.2 percentage points. That is, based on the LSAC applications from the state, only 59.5% of Texas Tech Student body should be white.

For those who object to the methodology here, based on the idea that it does not take into consideration the "pool" of qualified applicants, see my essay on LSAT and Discrimination and my essay on Legal Education!: Incompetent.  As practiced in most law schools, the law school admission process is not an issue of who can do law school and be a competent lawyer. It is mostly a cherry-picking exercise, over applicants who all would be capable of being good lawyers if legal education would educate instead of sort.

 

 


 

Top Ten Whitest Law School

  School State Total Whiteness in Law School
1 University of Montana  MT 95.6
2 University of Maine  ME 95.3
3 Samford University (Cumberland) AL 94.7
4 University of Idaho  ID 93.7
5 Duquesne University PA 93.4
6 University of South Carolina  SC 93.0
7 Northern Kentucky University (Chase) KY 92.9
8 University of Kentucky  KY 92.7
9 Marquette University WI 92.6
10 University of Richmond  VA 92.4

 Discussion

 

all the Top 10  Whitest Law Schools  are over 90% white.  In fact, half of the Top Ten Whitest Law Schools are over 93.2% white. If you consider these schools to be national schools (recruiting and admitting students from all over the United States), than they all are well over the 68.1% white LSAC application pool.

While it might be expected that many of the Top 10 Whitest Law Schools would be from states or regions that had very few minorities (such as University of Maine),  in fact, half the Top 10 Whitest Law Schools are in the south which has a significant minority population.

Only Maine (-.59%) has fewer whites in the school than in its state law school-age population (ages 21 to 39). However, since all schools assert that they are national or regional schools, Maine was left on the Top Ten list because the New England Region has  83.93% whites between 21-39 years old. Thus, Maine has 10% more white students than white population 21-39 years old in the New England Region.

Excess whiteness is striking in three Top Ten Whitest Law Schools: The University of Alabama, University of Richmond and the University of South Carolina. In each of these schools, the schools have over 25% more white law students than white population 21 to 39 years old in the state. (See Below)

Six of the Top Ten Whitest Law Schools are public schools. All the schools except Maine are over-serving their white population.  South Carolina has the highest excess total whiteness, with 28.67% more white law students than white population 21-39 years old  in the state. Significant excess whiteness in law school raises questions about how well these tax support schools are meeting their obligation to all the citizens of their respective state. (See Below)

Most Top Ten Whitest Law Schools are 3rd tier schools; that is there are no 1st tier school and only one 4th tier school.

Kentucky is the only state to have two law schools in the Top 10 Whitest Law Schools.

 

   

Descriptive Statistics

Mean

 

93.630

Median

 

93.200

Minimum

 

92.4

Maximum

 

95.6

 
   

Region

 

Frequency

Percent

New England

2

20.0

Southeast

2

20.0

Midsouth

3

30.0

Great Lakes

1

10.0

Mountain West

2

20.0

Total

10

100.0

US News & World Report Tier**

 

Frequency

Percent

      1st Tier (USNews)

0

 

2nd Tier (USNews)

4

40.0

3rd Tier (USNews)

5

50.0

4th Tier (USNews)

1

10.0

Total

10

100.0

   

Excess Whiteness in Public Law Schools Among the Top Ten

State Total population 21-39 years old Total population 21-39 yrs :White alone %population White Whiteness in Law school Excess Whiteness in Law Schools
Idaho 338472 288961 85.37 95.60 10.23
Kentucky 1112203 977899 87.92 92.80 4.88
Maine 316092 303115 95.89 95.30 -0.59
Montana 215349 190076 88.26 95.60 7.34
South Carolina 1095000 704392 64.33 93.00 28.67

Based on Tables P1: Total Population and P6 Not Hispanic and Latino, U.S. Census, http://www.census.gov/, Last Visited: March 19, 2004.

 

Excess Whiteness in Top Ten Whitest Law School

  Total population 21-39 years old Total population 21-39 yrs :White alone %population White Whiteness in Law school Excess Whiteness in Law Schools
Alabama 1183566 809772 68.42 94.7 26.28
Idaho 338472 288961 85.37 93.7 8.33
Kentucky 1112203 977899 87.92 92.8 4.88
Maine 316092 303115 95.89 95.3 -0.59
Montana 215349 190076 88.26 95.6 7.34
Pennsylvania 3089778 2515545 81.42 93.4 11.98
South Carolina 1095000 704392 64.33 93 28.67
Virginia 2026803 1352784 66.74 92.4 25.66
Wisconsin 1418166 1208371 85.21 92.6 7.39

Based on Tables P1: Total Population and P6 Not Hispanic and Latino, U.S. Census, http://www.census.gov/, Last Visited: March 19, 2004.

**The tier system is based on  2004 US News & World Report ranking. (back)

 


 

Ranking - Total Whiteness

Note: Rank is based on the total % of whiteness. Percent of whiteness was calculated by adding % of caucasian to % of unknowns. The lower the rank number (such as 1), the higher the percentage of whiteness. Remember, that total whiteness in the National LSAC Applications was 68.1%.
RankSchool  (Blue=Not Historically White Law School)State%Whiteness
1 University of Montana  MT 95.6
2 University of Maine  ME 95.3
3 Samford University (Cumberland) AL 94.7
4 University of Idaho  ID 93.7
5 Duquesne University PA 93.4
6 University of South Carolina  SC 93
7 Northern Kentucky University (Chase) KY 92.9
8 University of Kentucky  KY 92.7
9 Marquette University WI 92.6
10 University of Richmond  VA 92.4
11 Campbell University NC 92.3
11 University of Toledo  OH 92.3
13 University of Wyoming  WY 91.7
14 University of Nebraska–Lincoln   NE 91.6
14 Widener University DE 91.6
16 Ohio Northern University  OH 91.5
17 University of Louisville (Brandeis)   KY 91.4
18 Southern Illinois University-Carbondale  IL 91.2
19 University of Alabama  AL 91.1
20 West Virginia University  WV 91
21 Drake University IA 90.6
22 University of Akron OH 90.4
22 University of Mississippi  MS 90.4
24 Mississippi College  MS 90.3
25 Suffolk University MA 90.2
26 Quinnipiac University CT 90.1
27 University of Pittsburgh  PA 89.9
28 Wake Forest University NC 89.7
29 University of Missouri (Columbia)   MO 89.6
29 University of Utah (S.J. Quinney)   UT 89.6
31 Penn State University (Dickinson School of Law) PA 89.4
32 Willamette University OR 89.3
33 Appalachian School of Law VA 89.1
34 Saint Louis University  MO 88.6
34 University of Missouri (Kansas City)   MO 88.6
34 Valparaiso University IN 88.6
37 Creighton University NE 88.5
38 Roger Williams University RI 88.4
38 University of South Dakota  SD 88.4
40 Brigham Young University (J. Reuben Clark) UT 88.2
41 Capital University OH 88.1
42 Cleveland State University (Marshall) OH 88
43 Villanova University PA 87.9
44 Ave Maria School of Law MI 87.8
45 William Mitchell College of Law  MN 87.7
46 Baylor University TX 87.4
46 Southern Methodist University Dedman School of Law TX 87.4
48 University of Arkansas (Little Rock)  (Bowen) AR 87.3
49 University of North Dakota  ND 87.2
50 Chicago-Kent Illinois Institute of Technology  IL 86.7
50 Mercer University GA 86.7
50 Vermont Law School  VT 86.7
50 Western New England College  MA 86.7
54 Hamline University MN 86.6
54 University of Oklahoma  OK 86.6
56 University of Memphis  TN 86.5
57 University of Oregon  OR 86.4
58 Louisiana State University–Baton Rouge  LA 86.3
59 Washburn University KS 85.8
60 Texas Tech University  TX 85.7
60 University of Tennessee (Knoxville)   TN 85.7
62 Gonzaga University WA 85.4
63 George Mason University VA 85.3
63 University of Kansas  KS 85.3
65 University of Connecticut  CT 85.1
65 University of Dayton  OH 85.1
67 Georgia State University  GA 84.5
68 Case Western Reserve University OH 84.2
68 University of Georgia  GA 84.2
70 Wayne State University MI 83.7
71 Indiana University–Indianapolis  IN 83.4
71 University of Virginia  VA 83.4
73 University of Iowa  IA 83.3
74 William and Mary Law School  VA 83.1
75 University at Buffalo NY 82.9
76 New England School of Law  MA 82.8
77 Stetson University FL 82.7
78 Pace University NY 82.4
79 Franklin Pierce Law Center  NH 82.3
80 Albany Law School-Union University NY 82.2
80 Michigan State University - Detroit College of Law  MI 82.2
80 Pepperdine University CA 82.2
83 Indiana University–Bloomington  IN 82
83 John Marshall Law School IL 82
83 Washington and Lee University  VA 82
86 University of Arkansas (Fayetteville )   AR 81.9
87 Regent University VA 81.8
87 University of Colorado (Boulder)   CO 81.8
87 University of Denver  CO 81.8
90 Loyola University Chicago  IL 81.6
90 University of Cincinnati  OH 81.6
92 Rutgers State University–Camden NJ 81.5
93 Temple University (Beasley)  PA 81.4
94 University of Tulsa  OK 81.3
95 University of Minnesota (Twin Cities)   MN 81.2
96 Ohio State University (Moritz) OH 81
97 University of Houston  TX 80.9
98 Florida Coastal School of Law  FL 80.8
99 Emory University GA 80.5
100 Lewis and Clark College (Northwestern) OR 80.3
100 University of North Carolina–Chapel Hill   NC 80.3
102 University of Nevada  NV 80.2
103 Notre Dame Law School  IN 80
104 Oklahoma City University  OK 79.8
105 Loyola University-New Orleans  LA 79.4
105 Thomas Jefferson School of Law CA 79.4
107 University of Baltimore  MD 79.3
108 University of Texas (Austin)  TX 79.1
109 Cardozo-Yeshiva University  NY 79
109 Washington University in St. Louis MO 79
111 New York Law School  NY 78.8
112 Texas Wesleyan University  TX 78.6
113 Seton Hall University NJ 78.2
113 University of the Pacific (McGeorge)  CA 78.2
115 Tulane University LA 78.1
116 Barry University FL 77.8
116 University of Michigan (Ann Arbor)   MI 77.8
118 Florida State University  FL 77.7
119 Seattle University  WA 77.6
120 Brooklyn Law School NY 77.5
120 St. John's University NY 77.5
122 Northern Illinois University  IL 77.4
123 Syracuse University NY 77.1
124 Catholic University of America  DC 77
124 University of Maryland  MD 77
126 Boston College  MA 76.2
127 DePaul University IL 76.1
128 Duke University NC 75.9
129 California Western School of Law  CA 75.7
129 South Texas College of Law  TX 75.7
131 University of Wisconsin (Madison)   WI 75.6
132 University of Washington  WA 75.4
133 Northeastern University MA 75.3
134 New York University  NY 75.1
134 University of Detroit Mercy  MI 75.1
136 Fordham University NY 74.9
136 Hofstra University NY 74.9
138 Touro College (Jacob D. Fuchsberg) NY 74.1
139 Vanderbilt University TN 74
140 Boston University  MA 73.9
141 Harvard University MA 73.6
142 Chapman University CA 73.4
142 University of Florida (Levin)  FL 73.4
144 University of Illinois (Urbana-Champaign)  IL 73.1
145 Georgetown University DC 72.9
145 University of Arizona (Rogers)  AZ 72.9
147 University of San Diego  CA 72.8
148 Cornell University NY 72.6
149 American University (Washington College of Law)  DC 71.3
149 University of California (Los Angeles)   CA 71.3
151 University of Pennsylvania  PA 71
152 University of San Francisco  CA 70.6
153 Golden Gate University CA 70.2
153 University of Chicago IL 70.2
155 Arizona State University  AZ 69.3
156 Northwestern University IL 68.3
157 George Washington University  DC 68.1
158 University of California (Hastings)   CA 67.2
159 University of Miami  FL 67.1
160 Yale University CT 66.9
161 Stanford University CA 66.6
162 University of California (Davis)   CA 65.7
163 University of California (Berkeley)   CA 65.2
163 University of New Mexico  NM 65.2
165 Nova Southeastern University FL 64.2
166 St. Mary's University TX 62.9
167 Rutgers State University–Newark NJ 62.8
168 Southwestern University School of Law CA 62.7
169 Thomas M. Cooley Law School  MI 62.3
170 Santa Clara University CA 60.9
171 Loyola Law School CA 60.8
172 Columbia University NY 60
173 CUNY-Queens College  NY 59.5
174 Whittier Law School CA 57.9
175 University of Southern California CA 57.3
176 Western State University CA 56.7
177 St. Thomas University FL 52.2
178 North Carolina Central University (HBLS) NC 50.7
179 University of District of Columbia PR 38.5
180 Southern University (HBLS) LA 35.5
181 University of Hawaii  HI 29.2
182 Texas Southern University (Thurgood Marshall)  (HBLS) TX 18.4
183 Howard University (HBLS) DC 5.8
184 Inter-American University School of Law PR 0
184 Pontifical Catholic University of Puerto Rico PR 0
184 University of Puerto Rico PR 0

 


 

Alphabetical Listing (Total Whiteness)

 

Note: Rank is based on the total % of whiteness. Percent of whiteness was calculated by adding percent of caucasian to % unknown. The lower the rank number (such as 1), the higher the percentage of whiteness.  Remember, that total whiteness in the National LSAC Application Pool was 68.1%.
Rank School (n=187) (Blue=Not Historically White Law School) State %Total Whiteness
80 Albany Law School-Union University NY 82.2
149 American University (Washington College of Law)  DC 71.3
33 Appalachian School of Law VA 89.1
155 Arizona State University  AZ 69.3
44 Ave Maria School of Law MI 87.8
116 Barry University FL 77.8
46 Baylor University TX 87.4
126 Boston College  MA 76.2
140 Boston University  MA 73.9
40 Brigham Young University (J. Reuben Clark) UT 88.2
120 Brooklyn Law School NY 77.5
129 California Western School of Law  CA 75.7
11 Campbell University NC 92.3
41 Capital University OH 88.1
109 Cardozo-Yeshiva University  NY 79
68 Case Western Reserve University OH 84.2
124 Catholic University of America  DC 77
142 Chapman University CA 73.4
50 Chicago-Kent Illinois Institute of Technology  IL 86.7
42 Cleveland State University (Marshall) OH 88
172 Columbia University NY 60
148 Cornell University NY 72.6
37 Creighton University NE 88.5
173 CUNY-Queens College  NY 59.5
127 DePaul University IL 76.1
21 Drake University IA 90.6
128 Duke University NC 75.9
5 Duquesne University PA 93.4
99 Emory University GA 80.5
98 Florida Coastal School of Law  FL 80.8
118 Florida State University  FL 77.7
136 Fordham University NY 74.9
79 Franklin Pierce Law Center  NH 82.3
63 George Mason University VA 85.3
157 George Washington University  DC 68.1
145 Georgetown University DC 72.9
67 Georgia State University  GA 84.5
153 Golden Gate University CA 70.2
62 Gonzaga University WA 85.4
54 Hamline University MN 86.6
141 Harvard University MA 73.6
136 Hofstra University NY 74.9
183 Howard University DC 5.8
83 Indiana University–Bloomington  IN 82
71 Indiana University–Indianapolis  IN 83.4
184 Inter-American University School of Law PR 0
83 John Marshall Law School IL 82
100 Lewis and Clark College (Northwestern) OR 80.3
58 Louisiana State University–Baton Rouge  LA 86.3
171 Loyola Law School CA 60.8
90 Loyola University Chicago  IL 81.6
105 Loyola University-New Orleans  LA 79.4
9 Marquette University WI 92.6
50 Mercer University GA 86.7
80 Michigan State University - Detroit College of Law  MI 82.2
24 Mississippi College  MS 90.3
76 New England School of Law  MA 82.8
111 New York Law School  NY 78.8
134 New York University  NY 75.1
178 North Carolina Central University NC 50.7
133 Northeastern University MA 75.3
122 Northern Illinois University  IL 77.4
7 Northern Kentucky University (Chase) KY 92.9
156 Northwestern University IL 68.3
103 Notre Dame Law School  IN 80
165 Nova Southeastern University FL 64.2
16 Ohio Northern University  OH 91.5
96 Ohio State University (Moritz) OH 81
104 Oklahoma City University  OK 79.8
78 Pace University NY 82.4
31 Penn State University (Dickinson School of Law) PA 89.4
80 Pepperdine University CA 82.2
184 Pontifical Catholic University of Puerto Rico PR 0
26 Quinnipiac University CT 90.1
87 Regent University VA 81.8
38 Roger Williams University RI 88.4
92 Rutgers State University–Camden NJ 81.5
167 Rutgers State University–Newark NJ 62.8
34 Saint Louis University  MO 88.6
3 Samford University (Cumberland) AL 94.7
170 Santa Clara University CA 60.9
119 Seattle University  WA 77.6
113 Seton Hall University NJ 78.2
129 South Texas College of Law  TX 75.7
18 Southern Illinois University-Carbondale  IL 91.2
46 Southern Methodist University Dedman School of Law TX 87.4
180 Southern University LA 35.5
168 Southwestern University School of Law CA 62.7
120 St. John's University NY 77.5
166 St. Mary's University TX 62.9
177 St. Thomas University FL 52.2
161 Stanford University CA 66.6
77 Stetson University FL 82.7
25 Suffolk University MA 90.2
123 Syracuse University NY 77.1
93 Temple University (Beasley)  PA 81.4
182 Texas Southern University (Thurgood Marshall)1 TX 18.4
60 Texas Tech University  TX 85.7
112 Texas Wesleyan University  TX 78.6
105 Thomas Jefferson School of Law CA 79.4
169 Thomas M. Cooley Law School  MI 62.3
138 Touro College (Jacob D. Fuchsberg) NY 74.1
115 Tulane University LA 78.1
75 University at Buffalo NY 82.9
22 University of Akron OH 90.4
19 University of Alabama  AL 91.1
145 University of Arizona (Rogers)  AZ 72.9
86 University of Arkansas (Fayetteville )   AR 81.9
48 University of Arkansas (Little Rock)  (Bowen) AR 87.3
107 University of Baltimore  MD 79.3
163 University of California (Berkeley)   CA 65.2
162 University of California (Davis)   CA 65.7
158 University of California (Hastings)   CA 67.2
149 University of California (Los Angeles)   CA 71.3
153 University of Chicago IL 70.2
90 University of Cincinnati  OH 81.6
87 University of Colorado (Boulder)   CO 81.8
65 University of Connecticut  CT 85.1
65 University of Dayton  OH 85.1
87 University of Denver  CO 81.8
134 University of Detroit Mercy  MI 75.1
179 University of District of Columbia PR 38.5
142 University of Florida (Levin)  FL 73.4
68 University of Georgia  GA 84.2
181 University of Hawaii  HI 29.2
97 University of Houston  TX 80.9
4 University of Idaho  ID 93.7
144 University of Illinois (Urbana-Champaign)  IL 73.1
73 University of Iowa  IA 83.3
63 University of Kansas  KS 85.3
8 University of Kentucky  KY 92.7
17 University of Louisville (Brandeis)   KY 91.4
2 University of Maine  ME 95.3
124 University of Maryland  MD 77
56 University of Memphis  TN 86.5
159 University of Miami  FL 67.1
116 University of Michigan (Ann Arbor)   MI 77.8
95 University of Minnesota (Twin Cities)   MN 81.2
22 University of Mississippi  MS 90.4
29 University of Missouri (Columbia)   MO 89.6
34 University of Missouri (Kansas City)   MO 88.6
1 University of Montana  MT 95.6
14 University of Nebraska–Lincoln   NE 91.6
102 University of Nevada  NV 80.2
163 University of New Mexico  NM 65.2
100 University of North Carolina–Chapel Hill   NC 80.3
49 University of North Dakota  ND 87.2
54 University of Oklahoma  OK 86.6
57 University of Oregon  OR 86.4
151 University of Pennsylvania  PA 71
27 University of Pittsburgh  PA 89.9
184 University of Puerto Rico PR 0
10 University of Richmond  VA 92.4
147 University of San Diego  CA 72.8
152 University of San Francisco  CA 70.6
6 University of South Carolina  SC 93
38 University of South Dakota  SD 88.4
175 University of Southern California CA 57.3
60 University of Tennessee (Knoxville)   TN 85.7
108 University of Texas (Austin)  TX 79.1
113 University of the Pacific (McGeorge)  CA 78.2
11 University of Toledo  OH 92.3
94 University of Tulsa  OK 81.3
29 University of Utah (S.J. Quinney)   UT 89.6
71 University of Virginia  VA 83.4
132 University of Washington  WA 75.4
131 University of Wisconsin (Madison)   WI 75.6
13 University of Wyoming  WY 91.7
34 Valparaiso University IN 88.6
139 Vanderbilt University TN 74
50 Vermont Law School  VT 86.7
43 Villanova University PA 87.9
28 Wake Forest University NC 89.7
59 Washburn University KS 85.8
83 Washington and Lee University  VA 82
109 Washington University in St. Louis MO 79
70 Wayne State University MI 83.7
20 West Virginia University  WV 91
50 Western New England College  MA 86.7
176 Western State University CA 56.7
174 Whittier Law School CA 57.9
14 Widener University DE 91.6
32 Willamette University OR 89.3
73 William and Mary Law School  VA 83.1
45 William Mitchell College of Law  MN 87.7
160 Yale University CT 66.9
 

 




 

Descriptive Statistics - Total Whiteness

 

Basic Descriptive Statistics
This analysis is based on the percent of the total student body that is white; that is Law School Whiteness. 179 schools were included in this analysis.  Average Whiteness is 79.90 and half the law schools have Whiteness above 81.60.
The highest level of whiteness is The University of Montana with 95.6% Whiteness (percent of white students).
The lowest is the University of Hawaii with 29.2% Whiteness.  However, because the University of Hawaii serves the population of its state which is non-white, it may be more properly excluded.
66 schools (36.9%)  have Whiteness greater than or equal to 85%
4 schools (1.7%) have Whiteness less than or equal to 39.99%
Almost half of the schools (49.2%) have Whiteness between 70 to 84.9%.
Region. 
Midwest has the greatest percentage of schools (83.3%) with Whiteness over 85%; while the Great Lakes has the largest number of schools (13) with Whiteness over 85%.
Three Regions (Southeast, Midsouth, and Far West) each has 1 school with Whiteness less than 55%.
The difference in distribution in schools and whiteness by region is statistically significant (p=.01). That is there is less than a 1% probability that the distribution occurred by chance.

Tier

The 3rd Tier has the greatest percentage (66.7%) and the most number (24) of schools with Whiteness over 85%.
Of the three schools that have Whiteness below 55%, 1 is a 2nd tier school; 1 is a 4th Tier School and 1 has No US News Ranking because it didn't report the information
The 1st tier has the fewest school (7/14%) with Whiteness greater than or equal to 85%.
The difference in distribution in schools and whiteness by tier was statistically significant (p=.000). That is there was less than .000 probability that the distribution occurred by chance.
One reason, the distribution may occur as it does is that as law schools attempt to move from fourth tier into 3rd tier, they attempt to get more selective and increase median LSAT. Both these moves would effect admission of non-white applicants.
Private/Public Status
Public law schools have the greatest percentage (51.5%) and largest number (34) of schools with Whiteness greater than or equal to 85%.
Of the three schools that has Whiteness below 55%, 1 is a private and 2 are  public.
The difference in distribution in schools and whiteness by tier is significant (p=.074). That is there is less than a 7.4% probability that the distribution occurred by chance.
 
 

 

 
Descriptive Statistics for Historically White Law Schools

N

179

Mean

79.903

Median

81.600

Minimum

29.2

Maximum

95.6

Percent of Whiteness  in Historically White Law Schools
  Number Percent
0.01 to 39.99% 2 1.1
40 to 54.99% 1 0.6
55.0 to 69.9% 22 12.3
70 to 84.99% 88 49.2
>=85.00% 66 36.9
 
Percent of Law School Whiteness by Tier

Tier

Minimum

Maximum

Mean

Median

1st Tier (USNews)

57.3

91.1

76.550

76.050

2nd Tier (USNews)

29.2

93.0

79.984

81.700

3rd Tier (USNews)

62.7

95.6

86.178

88.050

4th Tier (USNews)

52.2

92.9

79.554

81.800

No US News Ranking

38.5

89.1

71.683

79.000

Total

29.2

95.6

79.903

81.600

 

Sum of Squares

df

Mean Square

F

Sig.

ANOVA(Combined)

2389.763

4

597.441

6.251

.000

Percent of Whiteness  in Historically White Law School  By  Tier Percent = row Example:   of 1st Tier Schools 9 or 18% was between 55 to 69% white and 7 were over 85% white

 

0.01 to 39.99 % White

40.0 to 54.99 % White

55.0 to 69.99% White

70 to 84.99% white

>=85.00

 

1st Tier (USNews)

 

 

 

9

34

7

50

 

 

18.0%

68.0%

14.0%

100.0%

2nd Tier (USNews)

 

1

 

6

25

18

50

2.0%

 

12.0%

50.0%

36.0%

100.0%

3rd Tier (USNews)

 

 

 

1

11

24

36

 

 

2.8%

30.6%

66.7%

100.0%

4th Tier (USNews)

 

 

1

5

16

15

37

 

2.7%

13.5%

43.2%

40.5%

100.0%

No US News Ranking

 

1

  

1

2

2

6

16.7%

  

16.7%

33.3%

33.3%

100.0%

Total

 

2

1

22

88

66

179

1.1%

.6%

12.3%

49.2%

36.9%

100.0%

 
Percent of Whiteness in  Historically White Law School By Tier Percent = column Example: of schools with greater than or equal to 85% whiteness  7 or 10.6% are in the 1st Tier  and 24 or 36.4 are in the 3rd Tier

 

0.01 to 39.99 % White

40.0 to 54.99 % White

55.0 to 69.99% White

70 to 84.99% white

>=85.00

 

1st Tier (USNews)

 

 

 

9

34

7

50

 

 

40.9%

38.6%

10.6%

27.9%

2nd Tier (USNews)

 

1

 

6

25

18

50

50.0%

 

27.3%

28.4%

27.3%

27.9%

3rd Tier (USNews)

 

 

 

1

11

24

36

 

 

4.5%

12.5%

36.4%

20.1%

4th Tier (USNews)

 

 

1

5

16

15

37

 

100.0%

22.7%

18.2%

22.7%

20.7%

No US News Ranking

 

1

 

1

2

2

6

50.0%

 

4.5%

2.3%

3.0%

3.4%

 

2

1

22

88

66

179

100.0%

100.0%

100.0%

100.0%

100.0%

100.0%

 

 

Value

df

Asymp. Sig. (2-sided)

Pearson Chi-Square

45.311

16

.000

15 cells (60.0%) have expected count less than 5. The minimum expected count is .03.
 
 

Status

Minimum

Maximum

Mean

Median

Private

52.2

94.7

78.731

79.400

Public

29.2

95.6

81.566

83.550

Total

29.2

95.6

79.903

81.600

Percent of Whiteness in  Historically White Law School By  Region Percent = row Example: of schools in the Northeast 4 or 16.7% or over 85% white and 17 or 70.8% or between 40 to 84.9% white

 

0.01 to 39.99 % White

40.0 to 54.99 % White

55.0 to 69.99% White

70 to 84.99% white

>=85.00

 

Northeast

 

 

 

3

17

4

24

 

 

12.5%

70.8%

16.7%

100.0%

New England

 

 

 

1

6

7

14

 

 

7.1%

42.9%

50.0%

100.0%

Southcentral

 

 

 

1

9

6

16

 

 

6.3%

56.3%

37.5%

100.0%

Southeast

 

 

1

2

8

6

17

 

5.9%

11.8%

47.1%

35.3%

100.0%

Midsouth

 

1

 

1

12

12

26

3.8%

 

3.8%

46.2%

46.2%

100.0%

Midwest

 

 

 

 

2

10

12

 

 

 

16.7%

83.3%

100.0%

Great Lakes

 

 

 

2

18

13

33

 

 

6.1%

54.5%

39.4%

100.0%

Mountain West

 

 

 

2

3

5

10

 

 

20.0%

30.0%

50.0%

100.0%

Northwest

 

 

 

 

3

3

6

 

 

 

50.0%

50.0%

100.0%

Far West

 

1

 

10

10

 

21

4.8%

 

47.6%

47.6%

 

100.0%

 

 

2

1

22

88

66

179

1.1%

.6%

12.3%

49.2%

36.9%

100.0%

Percent of Whiteness in  Historically White Law School By  Region Percent = column Example: of schools with greater than or equal to 85% whiteness  4 or 6.1% are in the Northeast  and 13 or 19.7 are in the Great Lakes region
  0.01 to 39.99 % White 40.0 to 54.99 % White 55.0 to 69.99% White 70 to 84.99% white >=85.00 Total

Northeast

 

 

 

3

17

4

24

 

 

13.6%

19.3%

6.1%

13.4%

New England

 

 

 

1

6

7

14

 

 

4.5%

6.8%

10.6%

7.8%

Southcentral

 

 

 

1

9

6

16

 

 

4.5%

10.2%

9.1%

8.9%

Southeast

 

 

1

2

8

6

17

 

100.0%

9.1%

9.1%

9.1%

9.5%

Midsouth

 

1

 

1

12

12

26

50.0%

 

4.5%

13.6%

18.2%

14.5%

Midwest

 

 

 

 

2

10

12

 

 

 

2.3%

15.2%

6.7%

Great Lakes

 

 

 

2

18

13

33

 

 

9.1%

20.5%

19.7%

18.4%

Mountain West

 

  

 

2

3

5

10

 

 

9.1%

3.4%

7.6%

5.6%

Northwest

 

 

 

 

3

3

6

 

 

 

3.4%

4.5%

3.4%

Far West

 

1

 

10

10

 

21

50.0%

 

45.5%

11.4%

 

11.7%

 

2

1

22

88

66

179

 

100.0%

100.0%

100.0%

100.0%

100.0%

100.0%

 

 

Value

df

Asymp. Sig. (2-sided)

Pearson Chi-Square

68.256

36

.001

N of Valid Cases

179

 

 

a 35 cells (70.0%) have expected count less than 5. The minimum expected count is .03.
 
 
Percent of Whiteness in  Historically White Law School By Private/Public Status Percent = row Example: of Private Law Schools  32 or 30.5% are over 85% white and 1 or 1.% was  between 40 to 54.9% white
   0.01 to 39.99 % White 40.0 to 54.99 % White 55.0 to 69.99% White 70 to 84.99% white >=85.00   

Private

 

 

1

15

57

32

105

  

1.0%

14.3%

54.3%

30.5%

100.0%

Public

 

2

  

7

31

34

74

2.7%

 

9.5%

41.9%

45.9%

100.0%

  

 

2

1

22

88

66

179

1.1%

.6%

12.3%

49.2%

36.9%

100.0%

 

Percent of Whiteness in  Historically White Law School By Private/Public Status Percent = column Example: of schools with greater than or equal to 85% whiteness  32 or 48.5% are private schools  and 34 or 51.5% are public schools.

  

0.01 to 39.99 % White

40.0 to 54.99 % White

55.0 to 69.99% White

70 to 84.99% white

>=85.00

 

Private: 

 

 

1

15

57

32

105

 

100.0%

68.2%

64.8%

48.5%

58.7%

Public: 

 

2

 

7

31

34

74

100.0%

 

31.8%

35.2%

51.5%

41.3%

Total: 

 

2

1

22

88

66

179

100.0%

100.0%

100.0%

100.0%

100.0%

100.0%

 

 

Value

df

Asymp. Sig. (2-sided)

Pearson Chi-Square

8.539

4

.074

N of Valid Cases

179

 

 

a 4 cells (40.0%) have expected count less than 5. The minimum expected count is .41.

 

 


 

Total Whiteness in State LSAC Applications

 

 

Rank State Total  White  %Whiteness
26 ALABAMA 892 672 75.3
28 ALASKA 120 89 74.2
31 ARIZONA 1384 1009 72.9
17 ARKANSAS 643 521 81.0
51 CALIFORNIA 11925 5733 48.1
50 CANADIAN PROVINCES 737 388 52.6
21 COLORADO 1510 1190 78.8
30 CONNECTICUT 1461 1068 73.1
41 DELAWARE 283 187 66.1
47 DISTRICT OF COLUMBIA 969 540 55.7
46 FLORIDA 5170 2953 57.1
43 GEORGIA 2788 1738 62.3
54 GUAM 19 3 15.8
53 HAWAII 329 72 21.9
14 IDAHO 284 240 84.5
36 ILLINOIS 4571 3137 68.6
23 INDIANA 1706 1337 78.4
8 IOWA 794 692 87.2
13 KANSAS 756 640 84.7
11 KENTUCKY 1065 908 85.3
40 LOUISIANA 1610 1070 66.5
6 MAINE 295 259 87.8
49 MARYLAND 2440 1313 53.8
27 MASSACHUSETTS 2949 2200 74.6
34 MICHIGAN 2844 1973 69.4
15 MINNESOTA 1435 1194 83.2
35 MISSISSIPPI 701 486 69.3
19 MISSOURI 1566 1236 78.9
1 MONTANA 250 226 90.4
7 NEBRASKA 485 423 87.2
39 NEVADA 548 365 66.6
9 NEW HAMPSHIRE 297 254 85.5
42 NEW JERSEY 3758 2348 62.5
48 NEW MEXICO 375 206 54.9
44 NEW YORK 9329 5761 61.8
37 NORTH CAROLINA 2350 1609 68.5
4 NORTH DAKOTA 169 152 89.9
19 OHIO 3539 2792 78.9
33 OKLAHOMA 847 592 69.9
24 OREGON 839 646 77.0
52 OTHER TERRITORIES 30 7 23.3
22 PENNSYLVANIA 3789 2977 78.6
57 PUERTO RICO 1287 17 1.3
16 RHODE ISLAND 292 242 82.9
25 SOUTH CAROLINA 1051 796 75.7
2 SOUTH DAKOTA 182 164 90.1
56 STATE NOT INDICATED 1899 93 4.9
29 TENNESSEE 1369 1002 73.2
45 TEXAS 6797 4043 59.5
12 UTAH 1131 964 85.2
10 VERMONT 144 123 85.4
55 VIRGIN ISLANDS 17 2 11.8
38 VIRGINIA 3387 2276 67.2
32 WASHINGTON 1936 1379 71.2
5 WEST VIRGINIA 453 404 89.2
18 WISCONSIN 1556 1258 80.8
2 WYOMING 152 137 90.1

 

 


 

Total Whiteness in Regional LSAC Applications

 

Region Total Applications Number White % White
Far West 12851 6180 48.09
Great Lakes 15651 11691 74.70
MidSouth 12316 8239 66.90
Midwest 3952 3307 83.68
Mountain West 5086 3972 78.10
New England 5438 4146 76.24
Northeast 16876 11086 65.69
Northwest 2895 2114 73.02
Southcentral 9897 6226 62.91
Southeast 11906 6664 55.97

 

 
State Region
ALABAMA Southeast
ALASKA Northwest
ARIZONA Mountain West
ARKANSAS SouthCentral
CALIFORNIA Far West
COLORADO Mountain West
CONNECTICUT New England
DELAWARE MidSouth
DISTRICT OF COLUMBIA MidSouth
FLORIDA Southeast
GEORGIA Southeast
GUAM Far West
HAWAII Far West
IDAHO Mountain West
ILLINOIS Great Lakes
INDIANA Great Lakes
IOWA Midwest
KANSAS Midwest
KENTUCKY MidSouth
LOUISIANA SouthCentral
MAINE New England
MARYLAND MidSouth
MASSACHUSETTS New England
MICHIGAN Great Lakes
MINNESOTA Great Lakes
MISSISSIPPI Southeast
MISSOURI Midwest
MONTANA Mountain West
NEBRASKA Midwest
NEVADA Far West
NEW HAMPSHIRE New England
NEW JERSEY Northeast
NEW MEXICO Mountain West
NEW YORK Northeast
NORTH CAROLINA MidSouth
NORTH DAKOTA Midwest
OHIO Great Lakes
OKLAHOMA SouthCentral
OREGON Northwest
OTHER TERRITORIES Far West
PENNSYLVANIA Northeast
PUERTO RICO Southeast
RHODE ISLAND New England
SOUTH CAROLINA Southeast
SOUTH DAKOTA Midwest
STATE NOT INDICATED  
TENNESSEE MidSouth
TEXAS SouthCentral
UTAH Mountain West
VERMONT New England
VIRGIN ISLANDS Southeast
VIRGINIA MidSouth
WASHINGTON Northwest
WEST VIRGINIA MidSouth
WISCONSIN Great Lakes
WYOMING Mountain West

 

Region State 
Far West CALIFORNIA
GUAM
HAWAII
NEVADA
OTHER TERRITORIES
Great Lakes ILLINOIS
INDIANA
MICHIGAN
MINNESOTA
OHIO
WISCONSIN
MidSouth DELAWARE
DISTRICT OF COLUMBIA
KENTUCKY
MARYLAND
NORTH CAROLINA
TENNESSEE
VIRGINIA
WEST VIRGINIA
Midwest IOWA
KANSAS
MISSOURI
NEBRASKA
NORTH DAKOTA
SOUTH DAKOTA
Mountain West ARIZONA
COLORADO
IDAHO
MONTANA
NEW MEXICO
UTAH
WYOMING
New England CONNECTICUT
MAINE
MASSACHUSETTS
NEW HAMPSHIRE
RHODE ISLAND
VERMONT
Northeast NEW JERSEY
NEW YORK
PENNSYLVANIA
Northwest ALASKA
OREGON
WASHINGTON
SouthCentral ARKANSAS
LOUISIANA
OKLAHOMA
TEXAS
Southeast ALABAMA
FLORIDA
GEORGIA
MISSISSIPPI
PUERTO RICO
SOUTH CAROLINA
VIRGIN ISLANDS

 

 


 

Unknown Race and Total Whiteness 

 

Overall Statistics - Unknown Race

Status

Mean

Median

Std. Error of Mean

Minimum

Maximum

Total

4.2525

1.1000

.4753

.00

34.40

 

Private versus Public  Status

Status

Mean

Median

Std. Error of Mean

Minimum

Maximum

Private

4.4724

1.1000

.6519

.00

34.40

Public

3.9405

1.1000

.6866

.00

26.50

Total

4.2525

1.1000

.4753

.00

34.40

 

Region

Region

Mean

Median

Std. Error of Mean

Minimum

Maximum

Northeast

4.0333

.3000

1.6121

.00

34.40

New England

6.8929

3.7000

2.1101

.00

25.00

Southcentral

2.0063

.3500

.7654

.00

11.20

Southeast

3.9588

1.6000

1.6604

.00

27.60

Midsouth

3.3346

.1500

1.1799

.00

23.70

Midwest

2.6833

1.1000

1.1098

.00

12.80

Great Lakes

3.1576

1.0000

.8047

.00

19.50

Mountain West

2.7600

.3000

1.6013

.00

16.40

Northwest

4.6833

3.7000

2.1489

.00

11.10

Far West

9.0333

6.6000

1.6671

.00

26.50

Total

4.2525

1.1000

.4753

.00

34.40

Tier

Tier

Mean

Median

Std. Error of Mean

Minimum

Maximum

1st Tier (USNews)

5.7600

1.5000

1.1524

.00

34.40

2nd Tier (USNews)

2.5580

.1000

.5760

.00

16.40

3rd Tier (US News)

3.9111

2.0500

.8129

.00

18.90

4th Tier (US News)

5.0973

1.8000

1.2107

.00

27.60

No US News Ranking

2.6500

1.8000

1.2154

.00

6.60

 

Spearman's Rho

 

Region

Status

Tier

Correlation Coefficient

.144

-.017

-.006

Sig. (2-tailed)

.055

.821

.941

N

179

179

17

 

 

 

Alphabetical Listing
School White Identified Race Unknown Total whiteness
Albany Law School-Union University 81.7 0.5 82.2
American University (Washington College of Law)  61.7 9.6 71.3
Appalachian School of Law 72.5 0.4 72.6
Arizona State University  69.3 0 69.3
Ave Maria School of Law 87.8 0 87.8
Barry University 74.6 3.2 77.8
Baylor University 87.4 0 87.4
Boston College  67.5 8.7 76.2
Boston University  73.9 0 73.9
Brigham Young University (J. Reuben Clark) 88.2 0 88.2
Brooklyn Law School 77.5 0 77.5
California Western School of Law  63.9 11.8 75.7
Campbell University 91.7 0.6 92.3
Capital University 85 3.1 88.1
Cardozo-Yeshiva University  79 0 79
Case Western Reserve University 84.2 0 84.2
Catholic University of America  76.9 0 76.9
Chapman University 65.6 7.8 73.4
Chicago-Kent Illinois Institute of Technology  79.7 7 86.7
Cleveland State University (Marshall) 86.2 1.8 88
Columbia University 59.7 0.3 60
Cornell University 72.6 0 72.6
Creighton University 88.5 0 88.5
CUNY-Queens College  53.2 6.1 59.3
DePaul University 69.1 7 76.1
Drake University 90.6 0 90.6
Duke University 68.2 7.7 75.9
Duquesne University 93.4 0 93.4
Emory University 80.2 0.3 80.5
Florida Coastal School of Law  53.2 27.6 80.8
Florida State University  76 1.7 77.7
Fordham University 69.3 5.6 74.9
Franklin Pierce Law Center  71 11.3 82.3
George Mason University 85.3 0 85.3
George Washington University  61.6 6.5 68.1
Georgetown University 72.8 0.2 73
Georgia State University  75.4 9.1 84.5
Golden Gate University 55.8 14.4 70.2
Gonzaga University 85.4 0 85.4
Hamline University 85.9 0.7 86.6
Harvard University 53.4 20.2 73.6
Hofstra University 58.9 16 74.9
Howard University 4.8 1 5.8
Indiana University–Bloomington  77.4 4.6 82
Indiana University–Indianapolis  83.4 0 83.4
Inter-American University School of Law 0 0 0
John Marshall Law School 81 1 82
Lewis and Clark College (Northwestern) 69.2 11.1 80.3
Louisiana State University–Baton Rouge  84.9 1.4 86.3
Loyola Law School 54.3 6.5 60.8
Loyola University Chicago  77.9 3.7 81.6
Loyola University-New Orleans  74 5.4 79.4
Marquette University 92.4 0.2 92.6
Mercer University 79.5 7.3 86.8
Michigan State University - Detroit College of Law  81.1 1.1 82.2
Mississippi College  90.3 0 90.3
New England School of Law  80.5 2.3 82.8
New York Law School  75.1 3.7 78.8
New York University  40.7 34.4 75.1
North Carolina Central University 49.6 1.1 50.7
Northeastern University 75.3 0 75.3
Northern Illinois University  77.4 0 77.4
Northern Kentucky University (Chase) 92.9 0 92.9
Northwestern University 48.8 19.5 68.3
Notre Dame Law School  80 0 80
Nova Southeastern University 63.4 0.8 64.2
Ohio Northern University  91.5 0 91.5
Ohio State University (Moritz) 81 0 81
Oklahoma City University  79.8 0 79.8
Pace University 78.1 4.3 82.4
Penn State University (Dickinson School of Law) 88.6 0.8 89.4
Pepperdine University 63.3 18.9 82.2
Pontifical Catholic University of Puerto Rico 0 0 0
Quinnipiac University 90.1 0 90.1
Regent University 77.6 4.2 81.8
Roger Williams University 77.5 10.9 88.4
Rutgers State University–Camden 81.5 0 81.5
Rutgers State University–Newark 62.8 0 62.8
Saint Louis University  82.2 6.4 88.6
Samford University (Cumberland) 94.7 0 94.7
Santa Clara University 60.9 0 60.9
Seattle University  70.2 7.4 77.6
Seton Hall University 78.2 0 78.2
South Texas College of Law  75.7 0 75.7
Southern Illinois University-Carbondale  86 5.2 91.2
Southern Methodist University Dedman School of Law 84.4 0 84.4
Southern University 35.5 0 35.5
Southwestern University School of Law 61.3 1.4 62.7
St. John's University 63.7 13.7 77.4
St. Mary's University 62.9 0 62.9
St. Thomas University 48.5 3.7 52.2
Stanford University 56.5 10.1 66.6
Stetson University 81.1 1.6 82.7
Suffolk University 85.1 5.1 90.2
Syracuse University 77.1 0 77.1
Temple University (Beasley)  80 1.4 81.4
Texas Southern University (Thurgood Marshall)1 15.5 2.9 18.4
Texas Tech University  74.5 11.2 85.7
Texas Wesleyan University  73.5 5.1 78.6
Thomas Jefferson School of Law 79.4 0 79.4
Thomas M. Cooley Law School  61.7 0.6 62.3
Touro College (Jacob D. Fuchsberg) 74.1 0 74.1
Tulane University 78.1 0 78.1
University at Buffalo 73.1 9.7 82.8
University of Akron 87.9 2.5 90.4
University of Alabama  91.1 0 91.1
University of Arizona (Rogers)  72.5 0.4 72.9
University of Arkansas (Fayetteville )   81.9 0 81.9
University of Arkansas (Little Rock)  (Bowen) 87.3 0 87.3
University of Baltimore  70.4 8.9 79.3
University of California (Berkeley)   44.4 20.8 65.2
University of California (Davis)   51 14.7 65.7
University of California (Hastings)   47 20.3 67.3
University of California (Los Angeles)   44.8 26.5 71.3
University of Chicago 66 4.2 70.2
University of Cincinnati  81.6 0 81.6
University of Colorado (Boulder)   81.4 0.2 81.6
University of Connecticut  83 2.1 85.1
University of Dayton  85.1 0 85.1
University of Denver  78.4 3.4 81.8
University of Detroit Mercy  67.2 7.9 75.1
University of District of Columbia 38.5 0 38.5
University of Florida (Levin)  72.5 0.9 73.4
University of Georgia  75 9.2 84.2
University of Hawaii  25 4.2 29.2
University of Houston  80.2 0.7 80.9
University of Idaho  90.5 3.2 93.7
University of Illinois (Urbana-Champaign)  64.5 8.6 73.1
University of Iowa  79.1 4.2 83.3
University of Kansas  83.3 2 85.3
University of Kentucky  92.7 0 92.7
University of Louisville (Brandeis)   91.4 0 91.4
University of Maine  86.3 9 95.3
University of Maryland  75.9 1.1 77
University of Memphis  86.5 0 86.5
University of Miami  67.1 0 67.1
University of Michigan (Ann Arbor)   62.8 15 77.8
University of Minnesota (Twin Cities)   80.1 1.1 81.2
University of Mississippi  90.2 0.2 90.4
University of Missouri (Columbia)   86.9 2.7 89.6
University of Missouri (Kansas City)   88.4 0.2 88.6
University of Montana  95.6 0 95.6
University of Nebraska–Lincoln   91.6 0 91.6
University of Nevada  73.6 6.6 80.2
University of New Mexico  48.8 16.4 65.2
University of North Carolina–Chapel Hill   80.2 0.1 80.3
University of North Dakota  74.4 12.8 87.2
University of Oklahoma  84.5 2.1 86.6
University of Oregon  86.4 0 86.4
University of Pennsylvania  71 0 71
University of Pittsburgh  89.6 0.3 89.9
University of Puerto Rico 0 0 0
University of Richmond  92.4 0 92.4
University of San Diego  72.8 0 72.8
University of San Francisco  67.9 2.7 70.6
University of South Carolina  91.3 1.7 93
University of South Dakota  88.4 0 88.4
University of Southern California 51.3 6 57.3
University of Tennessee (Knoxville)   85.7 0 85.7
University of Texas (Austin)  74.2 4.9 79.1
University of the Pacific (McGeorge)  84.9 7.4 92.3
University of Toledo  84.9 7.4 92.3
University of Tulsa  78.3 3 81.3
University of Utah (S.J. Quinney)   89.6 0 89.6
University of Virginia  66 17.4 83.4
University of Washington  75.4 0 75.4
University of Wisconsin (Madison)   75.5 0.1 75.6
University of Wyoming  87.7 4 91.7
Valparaiso University 88.4 0.2 88.6
Vanderbilt University 73.8 0.2 74
Vermont Law School  86.7 0 86.7
Villanova University 87.9 0 87.9
Wake Forest University 89.7 0 89.7
Washburn University 85.8 0 85.8
Washington and Lee University  82 0 82
Washington University in St. Louis 75.2 3.9 79.1
Wayne State University 83.7 0 83.7
West Virginia University  91 0 91
Western New England College  61.7 25 86.7
Western State University 51 5.7 56.7
Whittier Law School 54 3.9 57.9
Widener University 67.9 23.7 91.6
Willamette University 79.7 9.6 89.3
William and Mary Law School  77 6.1 83.1
William Mitchell College of Law  87.7 0 87.7
Yale University 65 1.9 66.9

 

 

 


 

Whitest Regional Law Schools

 

Rank

School  (Alphabetical Listing)

Excess Whiteness  State Region
1 Samford University (Cumberland) 38.73 AL Southeast
2 University of South Carolina  37.03 SC Southeast
3 University of Alabama  35.13 AL Southeast
4 University of Mississippi  34.43 MS Southeast
5 Mississippi College  34.33 MS Southeast
6 Pepperdine University 34.11 CA Far West
6 University of Nevada  32.11 NV Far West
8 Thomas Jefferson School of Law 31.31 CA Far West
9 Mercer University 30.73 GA Southeast
10 University of the Pacific (McGeorge)  30.11 CA Far West
11 Georgia State University  28.53 GA Southeast
12 University of Georgia  28.23 GA Southeast
13 Duquesne University 27.71 PA Northeast
14 California Western School of Law  27.61 CA Far West
15 Stetson University 26.73 FL Southeast
16 Northern Kentucky University (Chase) 26 KY Midsouth
17 University of Kentucky  25.8 KY Midsouth
18 University of Richmond  25.5 VA Midsouth
19 Campbell University 25.4 NC Midsouth
20 Chapman University 25.31 CA Far West
21 Florida Coastal School of Law  24.83 FL Southeast
22 University of San Diego  24.71 CA Far West
23 Widener University 24.7 DE Midsouth
24 Emory University 24.53 GA Southeast
25 University of Louisville (Brandeis)   24.5 KY Midsouth
26 Baylor University 24.49 TX South Central
26 Southern Methodist University Dedman School of Law 24.49 TX South Central
28 University of Arkansas (Little Rock)  (Bowen) 24.39 AR South Central
29 University of Pittsburgh  24.21 PA Northeast
30 West Virginia University  24.1 WV Midsouth
31 Penn State University (Dickinson School of Law) 23.71 PA Northeast
32 University of Oklahoma  23.69 OK South Central
33 Louisiana State University–Baton Rouge  23.39 LA South Central
34 University of California (Los Angeles)   23.21 CA Far West
35 Wake Forest University 22.8 NC Midsouth
36 Texas Tech University  22.79 TX South Central
37 University of San Francisco  22.51 CA Far West
38 Villanova University 22.21 PA Northeast
39 Appalachian School of Law 22.2 VA Midsouth
40 Golden Gate University 22.11 CA Far West
41 Barry University 21.83 FL Southeast
42 Florida State University  21.73 FL Southeast
43 University of Memphis  19.6 TN Midsouth
44 University of California (Hastings)   19.11 CA Far West
45 University of Maine  19.06 ME New England
46 University of Arkansas (Fayetteville )   18.99 AR South Central
47 University of Tennessee (Knoxville)   18.8 TN Midsouth
48 Stanford University 18.51 CA Far West
49 George Mason University 18.4 VA Midsouth
50 University of Tulsa  18.39 OK South Central
51 University of Houston  17.99 TX South Central
52 Marquette University 17.9 WI Great Lakes
53 University of California (Davis)   17.61 CA Far West
54 University of Toledo  17.6 OH Great Lakes
55 University of Montana  17.5 MT Mountain West
56 University of Florida (Levin)  17.43 FL Southeast
57 University at Buffalo 17.21 NY Northeast
58 University of California (Berkeley)   17.11 CA Far West
59 Oklahoma City University  16.89 OK South Central
60 Ohio Northern University  16.8 OH Great Lakes
61 Pace University 16.71 NY Northeast
62 Albany Law School-Union University 16.51 NY Northeast
63 Southern Illinois University-Carbondale  16.5 IL Great Lakes
63 University of Virginia  16.5 VA Midsouth
65 Loyola University-New Orleans  16.49 LA South Central
66 Willamette University 16.28 OR Northwest
67 William and Mary Law School  16.2 VA Midsouth
68 University of Texas (Austin)  16.19 TX South Central
69 Rutgers State University–Camden 15.81 NJ Northeast
70 Temple University (Beasley)  15.71 PA Northeast
71 University of Akron 15.7 OH Great Lakes
72 Texas Wesleyan University  15.69 TX South Central
73 University of Idaho  15.6 ID Mountain West
74 Tulane University 15.19 LA South Central
75 Washington and Lee University  15.1 VA Midsouth
76 Regent University 14.9 VA Midsouth
77 Southwestern University School of Law 14.61 CA Far West
78 Suffolk University 13.96 MA New England
79 Valparaiso University 13.9 IN Great Lakes
80 Quinnipiac University 13.86 CT New England
81 University of Wyoming  13.6 WY Mountain West
82 Capital University 13.4 OH Great Lakes
82 University of North Carolina–Chapel Hill   13.4 NC Midsouth
84 University of Oregon  13.38 OR Northwest
85 Cardozo-Yeshiva University  13.31 NY Northeast
86 Cleveland State University (Marshall) 13.3 OH Great Lakes
87 New York Law School  13.11 NY Northeast
88 Ave Maria School of Law 13.1 MI Great Lakes
89 William Mitchell College of Law  13 MN Great Lakes
90 Santa Clara University 12.81 CA Far West
91 South Texas College of Law  12.79 TX South Central
92 Loyola Law School 12.71 CA Far West
93 Seton Hall University 12.51 NJ Northeast
94 University of Baltimore  12.4 MD Midsouth
95 Gonzaga University 12.38 WA Northwest
96 Roger Williams University 12.16 RI New England
97 Chicago-Kent Illinois Institute of Technology  12 IL Great Lakes
98 Hamline University 11.9 MN Great Lakes
99 Brooklyn Law School 11.81 NY Northeast
99 St. John's University 11.81 NY Northeast
101 University of Utah (S.J. Quinney)   11.5 UT Mountain West
102 Syracuse University 11.41 NY Northeast
103 University of Miami  11.13 FL Southeast
104 Vermont Law School  10.46 VT New England
104 Western New England College  10.46 MA New England
106 University of Dayton  10.4 OH Great Lakes
107 Brigham Young University (J. Reuben Clark) 10.1 UT Mountain West
107 Catholic University of America  10.1 DC Midsouth
107 University of Maryland  10.1 MD Midsouth
110 Whittier Law School 9.81 CA Far West
111 Case Western Reserve University 9.5 OH Great Lakes
112 New York University  9.41 NY Northeast
113 Fordham University 9.21 NY Northeast
113 Hofstra University 9.21 NY Northeast
113 University of Southern California 9.21 CA Far West
116 Duke University 9 NC Midsouth
116 Wayne State University 9 MI Great Lakes
118 University of Connecticut  8.86 CT New England
119 Indiana University–Indianapolis  8.7 IN Great Lakes
120 Western State University 8.61 CA Far West
121 Touro College (Jacob D. Fuchsberg) 8.41 NY Northeast
122 Nova Southeastern University 8.23 FL Southeast
123 University of Nebraska–Lincoln   7.92 NE Midwest
124 Michigan State University - Detroit College of Law  7.5 MI Great Lakes
125 Indiana University–Bloomington  7.3 IN Great Lakes
126 John Marshall Law School 7.3 IL Great Lakes
127 Lewis and Clark College (Northwestern) 7.28 OR Northwest
128 Vanderbilt University 7.1 TN Midsouth
129 Drake University 6.92 IA Midwest
130 Cornell University 6.91 NY Northeast
131 Loyola University Chicago  6.9 IL Great Lakes
132 University of Cincinnati  6.9 OH Great Lakes
133 New England School of Law  6.56 MA New England
134 University of Minnesota (Twin Cities)   6.5 MN Great Lakes
135 Ohio State University (Moritz) 6.3 OH Great Lakes
136 Franklin Pierce Law Center  6.06 NH New England
137 Georgetown University 6 DC Midsouth
138 University of Missouri (Columbia)   5.92 MO Midwest
139 University of Pennsylvania  5.31 PA Northeast
140 Notre Dame Law School  5.3 IN Great Lakes
141 Saint Louis University  4.92 MO Midwest
141 University of Missouri (Kansas City)   4.92 MO Midwest
143 Creighton University 4.82 NE Midwest
144 University of South Dakota  4.72 SD Midwest
145 Seattle University  4.58 WA Northwest
146 American University (Washington College of Law)  4.4 DC Midsouth
147 University of Colorado (Boulder)   3.7 CO Mountain West
147 University of Denver  3.7 CO Mountain West
149 University of North Dakota  3.52 ND Midwest
150 University of Michigan (Ann Arbor)   3.1 MI Great Lakes
151 Northern Illinois University  2.7 IL Great Lakes
152 University of Washington  2.38 WA Northwest
153 Washburn University 2.12 KS Midwest
154 University of Kansas  1.62 KS Midwest
155 DePaul University 1.4 IL Great Lakes
156 George Washington University  1.2 DC Midsouth
157 University of Wisconsin (Madison)   0.9 WI Great Lakes
158 University of Detroit Mercy  0.4 MI Great Lakes
159 St. Mary's University -0.01 TX South Central
160 Boston College  -0.04 MA New England
161 University of Iowa  -0.38 IA Midwest
162 Northeastern University -0.94 MA New England
163 University of Illinois (Urbana-Champaign)  -1.6 IL Great Lakes
164 Boston University  -2.34 MA New England
165 Harvard University -2.64 MA New England
166 Rutgers State University–Newark -2.89 NJ Northeast
167 St. Thomas University -3.77 FL Southeast
168 University of Chicago -4.5 IL Great Lakes
169 Washington University in St. Louis -4.68 MO Midwest
170 University of Arizona (Rogers)  -5.2 AZ Mountain West
171 Columbia University -5.69 NY Northeast
172 CUNY-Queens College  -6.19 NY Northeast
173 Northwestern University -6.4 IL Great Lakes
174 Arizona State University  -8.8 AZ Mountain West
175 Yale University -9.34 CT New England
176 Thomas M. Cooley Law School  -12.4 MI Great Lakes
177 University of New Mexico  -12.9 NM Mountain West
178 North Carolina Central University -16.2 NC Midsouth
179 University of District of Columbia -17.47 PR Southeast
180 University of Hawaii  -18.89 HI Far West
181 Southern University -27.41 LA South Central
182 Texas Southern University (Thurgood Marshall)1 -44.51 TX South Central
183 Inter-American University School of Law -55.97 PR Southeast
184 Pontifical Catholic University of Puerto Rico -55.97 PR Southeast
185 University of Puerto Rico -55.97 PR Southeast
186 Howard University -61.1 DC Midsouth

 

Number of Schools per LSAC Region (All Schools n=186)
 

Frequency

Percent

Northeast

24

12.9

New England

14

7.5

Southcentral

18

9.7

Southeast

20

10.8

Midsouth

28

15.1

Midwest

12

6.5

Great Lakes

33

17.7

Mountain West

10

5.4

Northwest

6

3.2

Far West

21

11.3

Number of Historically White Law Schools  per LSAC Region (n= 179)
 

Frequency

Percent

Northeast

24

13.4

New England

14

7.8

SouthCentral

16

8.9

Southeast

17

9.5

Midsouth

26

14.5

Midwest

12

6.7

Great Lakes

33

18.4

Mountain West

10

5.6

Northwest

6

3.4

Far West

21

11.

   
Excess Whiteness  (Regional LSAC Applications)

Region

Minimum

Maximum

Median

Mean

N

Northeast

-6.19

27.71

12.1600

11.9767

24

New England

-9.34

19.06

7.7100

6.1529

14

Southcentral

-.01

24.49

18.1900

17.6406

16

Southeast

-3.77

38.73

26.7300

24.7006

17

Midsouth

-17.47

26.00

16.3500

15.2588

26

Midwest

-4.68

7.92

4.7700

3.5283

12

Great Lakes

-12.40

17.90

8.7000

7.8512

33

Mountain West

-12.90

17.50

6.9000

4.8800

10

Northwest

2.38

16.28

9.8300

9.3800

6

Far West

-18.89

34.11

19.1100

18.7767

21

Total

-18.89

38.73

12.8100

12.6999

179

ANOVA Table

Sum of Squares

df

Mean Square

F

Sig.

6860.095

9

762.233

9.533

.000

 
  
Excess Whiteness Regional LSAC Application (Read Across)
 

No Excess Whiteness

.01 through 4.99

5.00 through 14.99

15.00 through 24.99

25.00 through 39.99

Northeast

12.5%

 

50.0%

33.3%

4.2%

New England

35.7%

 

57.1%

7.1%

 

Southcentral

6.3%

 

12.5%

81.3%

 

Southeast

5.9%

 

11.8%

29.4%

52.9%

Midsouth

3.8%

7.7%

30.8%

42.3%

15.4%

Midwest

16.7%

58.3%

25.0%

   

Great Lakes

12.1%

15.2%

54.5%

18.2%

 

Mountain West

30.0%

20.0%

30.0%

20.0%

 

Northwest

 

33.3%

50.0%

16.7%

 

Far West

4.8%

 

28.6%

38.1%

28.6%

   
Excess Whiteness Regional LSAC Application (Read Down)
 

No Excess Whiteness

.01 through 4.99

5.00 through 14.99

15.00 through 24.99

25.00 through 39.99

Northeast

14.3%

 

18.5%

14.5%

5.0%

New England

23.8%

 

12.3%

1.8%

 

Southcentral

4.8%

 

3.1%

23.6%

 

Southeast

4.8%

 

3.1%

9.1%

45.0%

Midsouth

4.8%

11.1%

12.3%

20.0%

20.0%

Midwest

9.5%

38.9%

4.6%

   

Great Lakes

19.0%

27.8%

27.7%

10.9%

 

Mountain West

14.3%

11.1%

4.6%

3.6%

 

Northwest

 

11.1%

4.6%

1.8%

 

Far West

4.8%

 

9.2%

14.5%

30.0%

  
Excess Whiteness Regional LSAC Application by Private/Public School Status (Read Across)
Private
 

No Excess  Whiteness

.01 through 4.99

5.00 through 14.99

15.00 through 24.99

25.00 through 39.99

Northeast

5.9%

 

70.6%

17.6%

5.9%

New England

41.7%

 

58.3%

   

Southcentral

11.1%

 

22.2%

66.7%

 

Southeast

10.0%

 

20.0%

30.0%

40.0%

Midsouth

 

15.4%

38.5%

30.8%

15.4%

Midwest

25.0%

50.0%

25.0%

   

Great Lakes

15.8%

10.5%

57.9%

15.8%

 

Mountain West

 

50.0%

50.0%

   

Northwest

 

25.0%

50.0%

25.0%

 

Far West

   

40.0%

26.7%

33.3%

 

11.4%

7.6%

46.7%

22.9%

11.4%

 
Public
 

No Excess  Whiteness

.01 through 4.99

5.00 through 14.99

15.00 through 24.99

25.00 through 39.99

Northeast

28.6%

   

71.4%

 

New England

   

50.0%

50.0%

 

Southcentral

     

100.0%

 

Southeast

     

28.6%

71.4%

Midsouth

7.7%

 

23.1%

53.8%

15.4%

Midwest

12.5%

62.5%

25.0%

   

Great Lakes

7.1%

21.4%

50.0%

21.4%

 

Mountain West

37.5%

12.5%

25.0%

25.0%

 

Northwest

 

50.0%

50.0%

   

Far West

16.7%

   

66.7%

16.7%

Excess Whiteness Regional LSAC Application  by Private/Public School Status (Read Down)
Private
 

No Excess Whiteness

.01 through 4.99

5.00 through 14.99

15.00 through 24.99

25.00 through 39.99

           

Northeast

22.2%

   

16.1%

 

New England

   

6.3%

3.2%

 

Southcentral

     

22.6%

 

Southeast

     

6.5%

62.5%

Midsouth

11.1%

 

18.8%

22.6%

25.0%

Midwest

11.1%

50.0%

12.5%

   

Great Lakes

11.1%

30.0%

43.8%

9.7%

 

Mountain West

33.3%

10.0%

12.5%

6.5%

 

Northwest

 

10.0%

6.3%

   

Far West

11.1%

   

12.9%

12.5%

 
Public
 

No Excess Whiteness

.01 through 4.99

5.00 through 14.99

15.00 through 24.99

25.00 through 39.99

           

Northeast

8.3%

 

24.5%

12.5%

8.3%

New England

41.7%

 

14.3%

   

Southcentral

8.3%

 

4.1%

25.0%

 

Southeast

8.3%

 

4.1%

12.5%

33.3%

Midsouth

 

25.0%

10.2%

16.7%

16.7%

Midwest

8.3%

25.0%

2.0%

   

Great Lakes

25.0%

25.0%

22.4%

12.5%

 

Mountain West

 

12.5%

2.0%

   

Northwest

 

12.5%

4.1%

4.2%

 

Far West

   

12.2%

16.7%

41.7%

Spearman Correlation Coefficient

Status

Value

Asymp. Std. Error

Approx. T

Approx. Sig.

Private

.113

.092

1.158

.250

Public

-.341

.113

-3.083

.003

 
Excess Whiteness Regional LSAC Application by  Tier (Read Down)
1st Tier (US News)
 

No Excess  Whiteness

.01 through 4.99

5.00 through 14.99

15.00 through 24.99

25.00 through 39.99

Northeast

9.1%

 

23.5%

   

New England

36.4%

 

5.9%

   

Southcentral

     

20.0%

 

Southeast

     

13.3%

100.0%

Midsouth

 

20.0%

29.4%

33.3%

 

Midwest

18.2%

       

Great Lakes

27.3%

40.0%

23.5%

   

Mountain West

9.1%

20.0%

11.8%

   

Northwest

 

20.0%

     

Far West

   

5.9%

33.3%

 
1st Tier (US News)
 

No Excess Whiteness

.01 through 4.99

5.00 through 14.99

15.00 through 24.99

25.00 through 39.99

Northeast

20.0%

 

80.0%

   

New England

80.0%

 

20.0%

   

Southcentral

     

100.0%

 

Southeast

     

50.0%

50.0%

Midsouth

 

9.1%

45.5%

45.5%

 

Midwest

100.0%

       

Great Lakes

33.3%

22.2%

44.4%

   

Mountain West

25.0%

25.0%

50.0%

   

Northwest

 

100.0%

     

Far West

   

16.7%

83.3%

 
  2nd Tier (USNews)
 

No Excess  Whiteness

.01 through 4.99

5.00 through 14.99

15.00 through 24.99

25.00 through 39.99

Northeast

20.0%

 

27.8%

29.4%

 

New England

20.0%

       

Southcentral

     

29.4%

 

Southeast

   

5.6%

5.9%

66.7%

Midsouth

 

25.0%

5.6%

11.8%

33.3%

Midwest

 

25.0%

11.1%

   

Great Lakes

   

27.8%

11.8%

 

Mountain West

40.0%

25.0%

     

Northwest

 

25.0%

11.1%

   

Far West

20.0%

 

11.1%

11.8%

 
2nd Tier (US News)
 

No Excess Whiteness

.01 through 4.99

5.00 through 14.99

15.00 through 24.99

25.00 through 39.99

Northeast

9.1%

 

45.5%

45.5%

 

New England

100.0%

       

Southcentral

     

100.0%

 

Southeast

   

16.7%

16.7%

66.7%

Midsouth

 

16.7%

16.7%

33.3%

33.3%

Midwest

 

33.3%

66.7%

   

Great Lakes

   

71.4%

28.6%

 

Mountain West

66.7%

33.3%

     

Northwest

 

33.3%

66.7%

   

Far West

20.0%

 

40.0%

40.0%

 
  3rd Tier (US News)
 

No Excess  Whiteness

.01 through 4.99

5.00 through 14.99

15.00 through 24.99

25.00 through 39.99

           

Northeast

   

18.2%

25.0%

14.3%

New England

   

27.3%

8.3%

 

Southcentral

   

9.1%

8.3%

 

Southeast

       

28.6%

Midsouth

     

16.7%

14.3%

Midwest

 

83.3%

9.1%

   

Great Lakes

 

16.7%

18.2%

25.0%

 

Mountain West

   

9.1%

16.7%

 

Far West

   

9.1%

 

42.9%

3rd Tier (US News)
 

No Excess Whiteness

.01 through 4.99

5.00 through 14.99

15.00 through 24.99

25.00 through 39.99

Northeast

   

33.3%

50.0%

16.7%

New England

   

75.0%

25.0%

 

Southcentral

   

50.0%

50.0%

 

Southeast

       

100.0%

Midsouth

25.0%

   

50.0%

25.0%

Midwest

 

83.3%

16.7%

   

Great Lakes

 

16.7%

33.3%

50.0%

 

Mountain West

   

33.3%

66.7%

 

Far West

   

25.0%

 

75.0%

  4th Tier (US News)
 

No Excess  Whiteness

.01 through 4.99

5.00 through 14.99

15.00 through 24.99

25.00 through 39.99

Northeast

25.0%

 

5.9%

   

New England

   

23.5%

   

Southcentral

25.0%

 

5.9%

44.4%

 

Southeast

25.0%

 

5.9%

11.1%

25.0%

Midsouth

   

11.8%

11.1%

25.0%

Midwest

 

33.3%

     

Great Lakes

25.0%

66.7%

35.3%

11.1%

 

Northwest

   

5.9%

11.1%

 

Far West

   

5.9%

11.1%

50.0%

4th Tier (US News)
 

No Excess Whiteness

.01 through 4.99

5.00 through 14.99

15.00 through 24.99

25.00 through 39.99

Northeast

50.0%

 

50.0%

   

New England

   

100.0%

   

Southcentral

37.5%

 

12.5%

50.0%

 

Southeast

25.0%

 

25.0%

25.0%

25.0%

Midsouth

20.0%

 

40.0%

20.0%

20.0%

Midwest

 

100.0%

     

Great Lakes

10.0%

20.0%

60.0%

10.0%

 

Northwest

   

50.0%

50.0%

 

Far West

   

25.0%

25.0%

50.0%

 

 
LSAC  Applications by Region
Rank Region Total White  %Whiteness in Region
1 Midwest 3952 3307 83.68
2 Mountain West 5086 3972 78.10
3 New England 5438 4146 76.24
4 Great Lakes 15651 11691 74.70
5 Northwest 2895 2114 73.02
6 MidSouth 12316 8239 66.90
7 Northeast 16876 11086 65.69
9 Southcentral 9897 6226 62.91
10 Southeast 11906 6664 55.97
11 Far West 12851 6180 48.09
Rank Region Total White %Whiteness in Region
11 Far West 12851 6180 48.09
4 Great Lakes 15651 11691 74.70
6 Midsouth 12316 8239 66.90
1 Midwest 3952 3307 83.68
2 Mountain West 5086 3972 78.10
3 New England 5438 4146 76.24
7 Northeast 16876 11086 65.69
5 Northwest 2895 2114 73.02
9 Southcentral 9897 6226 62.91
10 Southeast 11906 6664 55.97

 

State Region
ALABAMA Southeast
ALASKA Northwest
ARIZONA Mountain West
ARKANSAS SouthCentral
CALIFORNIA Far West
COLORADO Mountain West
CONNECTICUT New England
DELAWARE MidSouth
DISTRICT OF COLUMBIA MidSouth
FLORIDA Southeast
GEORGIA Southeast
GUAM Far West
HAWAII Far West
IDAHO Mountain West
ILLINOIS Great Lakes
INDIANA Great Lakes
IOWA Midwest
KANSAS Midwest
KENTUCKY MidSouth
LOUISIANA SouthCentral
MAINE New England
MARYLAND MidSouth
MASSACHUSETTS New England
MICHIGAN Great Lakes
MINNESOTA Great Lakes
MISSISSIPPI Southeast
MISSOURI Midwest
MONTANA Mountain West
NEBRASKA Midwest
NEVADA Far West
NEW HAMPSHIRE New England
NEW JERSEY Northeast
NEW MEXICO Mountain West
NEW YORK Northeast
NORTH CAROLINA MidSouth
NORTH DAKOTA Midwest
OHIO Great Lakes
OKLAHOMA SouthCentral
OREGON Northwest
OTHER TERRITORIES Far West
PENNSYLVANIA Northeast
PUERTO RICO Southeast
RHODE ISLAND New England
SOUTH CAROLINA Southeast
SOUTH DAKOTA Midwest
STATE NOT INDICATED  
TENNESSEE MidSouth
TEXAS SouthCentral
UTAH Mountain West
VERMONT New England
VIRGIN ISLANDS Southeast
VIRGINIA MidSouth
WASHINGTON Northwest
WEST VIRGINIA MidSouth
WISCONSIN Great Lakes
WYOMING Mountain West

 

Region State
Far West CALIFORNIA
GUAM
HAWAII
NEVADA
 
Great Lakes ILLINOIS
INDIANA
MICHIGAN
MINNESOTA
OHIO
WISCONSIN
MidSouth DELAWARE
DISTRICT OF COLUMBIA
KENTUCKY
MARYLAND
NORTH CAROLINA
TENNESSEE
VIRGINIA
WEST VIRGINIA
Midwest IOWA
KANSAS
MISSOURI
NEBRASKA
NORTH DAKOTA
SOUTH DAKOTA
Mountain West ARIZONA
COLORADO
IDAHO
MONTANA
NEW MEXICO
UTAH
WYOMING
New England CONNECTICUT
MAINE
MASSACHUSETTS
NEW HAMPSHIRE
RHODE ISLAND
VERMONT
Northeast NEW JERSEY
NEW YORK
PENNSYLVANIA
Northwest ALASKA
OREGON
WASHINGTON
SouthCentral ARKANSAS
LOUISIANA
OKLAHOMA
TEXAS
Southeast ALABAMA
FLORIDA
GEORGIA
MISSISSIPPI
PUERTO RICO
SOUTH CAROLINA
VIRGIN ISLANDS
 

 


 

Whites Regional Law School  - Alphabetical

 

Rank

School (Ranking)

Excess Whiteness State Region
62 Albany Law School-Union University 16.51 NY Northeast
146 American University (Washington College of Law)  4.4 DC Midsouth
39 Appalachian School of Law 22.2 VA Midsouth
174 Arizona State University  -8.8 AZ Mountain West
88 Ave Maria School of Law 13.1 MI Great Lakes
41 Barry University 21.83 FL Southeast
26 Baylor University 24.49 TX South Central
160 Boston College  -0.04 MA New England
164 Boston University  -2.34 MA New England
107 Brigham Young University (J. Reuben Clark) 10.1 UT Mountain West
99 Brooklyn Law School 11.81 NY Northeast
14 California Western School of Law  27.61 CA Far West
19 Campbell University 25.4 NC Midsouth
82 Capital University 13.4 OH Great Lakes
85 Cardozo-Yeshiva University  13.31 NY Northeast
111 Case Western Reserve University 9.5 OH Great Lakes
107 Catholic University of America  10.1 DC Midsouth
20 Chapman University 25.31 CA Far West
97 Chicago-Kent Illinois Institute of Technology  12 IL Great Lakes
86 Cleveland State University (Marshall) 13.3 OH Great Lakes
171 Columbia University -5.69 NY Northeast
130 Cornell University 6.91 NY Northeast
143 Creighton University 4.82 NE Midwest
172 CUNY-Queens College  -6.19 NY Northeast
155 DePaul University 1.4 IL Great Lakes
129 Drake University 6.92 IA Midwest
116 Duke University 9 NC Midsouth
13 Duquesne University 27.71 PA Northeast
24 Emory University 24.53 GA Southeast
21 Florida Coastal School of Law  24.83 FL Southeast
42 Florida State University  21.73 FL Southeast
113 Fordham University 9.21 NY Northeast
136 Franklin Pierce Law Center  6.06 NH New England
49 George Mason University 18.4 VA Midsouth
156 George Washington University  1.2 DC Midsouth
137 Georgetown University 6 DC Midsouth
11 Georgia State University  28.53 GA Southeast
40 Golden Gate University 22.11 CA Far West
95 Gonzaga University 12.38 WA Northwest
98 Hamline University 11.9 MN Great Lakes
165 Harvard University -2.64 MA New England
113 Hofstra University 9.21 NY Northeast
186 Howard University -61.1 DC Midsouth
125 Indiana University–Bloomington  7.3 IN Great Lakes
119 Indiana University–Indianapolis  8.7 IN Great Lakes
183 Inter-American University School of Law -55.97 PR Southeast
126 John Marshall Law School 7.3 IL Great Lakes
127 Lewis and Clark College (Northwestern) 7.28 OR Northwest
33 Louisiana State University–Baton Rouge  23.39 LA South Central
92 Loyola Law School 12.71 CA Far West
131 Loyola University Chicago  6.9 IL Great Lakes
65 Loyola University-New Orleans  16.49 LA South Central
52 Marquette University 17.9 WI Great Lakes
9 Mercer University 30.73 GA Southeast
124 Michigan State University - Detroit College of Law  7.5 MI Great Lakes
5 Mississippi College  34.33 MS Southeast
133 New England School of Law  6.56 MA New England
87 New York Law School  13.11 NY Northeast
112 New York University  9.41 NY Northeast
178 North Carolina Central University -16.2 NC Midsouth
162 Northeastern University -0.94 MA New England
151 Northern Illinois University  2.7 IL Great Lakes
16 Northern Kentucky University (Chase) 26 KY Midsouth
173 Northwestern University -6.4 IL Great Lakes
140 Notre Dame Law School  5.3 IN Great Lakes
122 Nova Southeastern University 8.23 FL Southeast
60 Ohio Northern University  16.8 OH Great Lakes
135 Ohio State University (Moritz) 6.3 OH Great Lakes
59 Oklahoma City University  16.89 OK South Central
61 Pace University 16.71 NY Northeast
31 Penn State University (Dickinson School of Law) 23.71 PA Northeast
6 Pepperdine University 34.11 CA Far West
184 Pontifical Catholic University of Puerto Rico -55.97 PR Southeast
80 Quinnipiac University 13.86 CT New England
76 Regent University 14.9 VA Midsouth
96 Roger Williams University 12.16 RI New England
69 Rutgers State University–Camden 15.81 NJ Northeast
166 Rutgers State University–Newark -2.89 NJ Northeast
141 Saint Louis University  4.92 MO Midwest
1 Samford University (Cumberland) 38.73 AL Southeast
90 Santa Clara University 12.81 CA Far West
145 Seattle University  4.58 WA Northwest
93 Seton Hall University 12.51 NJ Northeast
91 South Texas College of Law  12.79 TX South Central
63 Southern Illinois University-Carbondale  16.5 IL Great Lakes
26 Southern Methodist University Dedman School of Law 24.49 TX South Central
181 Southern University -27.41 LA South Central
77 Southwestern University School of Law 14.61 CA Far West
99 St. John's University 11.81 NY Northeast
159 St. Mary's University -0.01 TX South Central
167 St. Thomas University -3.77 FL Southeast
48 Stanford University 18.51 CA Far West
15 Stetson University 26.73 FL Southeast
78 Suffolk University 13.96 MA New England
102 Syracuse University 11.41 NY Northeast
70 Temple University (Beasley)  15.71 PA Northeast
182 Texas Southern University (Thurgood Marshall)1 -44.51 TX South Central
36 Texas Tech University  22.79 TX South Central
72 Texas Wesleyan University  15.69 TX South Central
8 Thomas Jefferson School of Law 31.31 CA Far West
176 Thomas M. Cooley Law School  -12.4 MI Great Lakes
121 Touro College (Jacob D. Fuchsberg) 8.41 NY Northeast
74 Tulane University 15.19 LA South Central
57 University at Buffalo 17.21 NY Northeast
71 University of Akron 15.7 OH Great Lakes
3 University of Alabama  35.13 AL Southeast
170 University of Arizona (Rogers)  -5.2 AZ Mountain West
46 University of Arkansas (Fayetteville )   18.99 AR South Central
28 University of Arkansas (Little Rock)  (Bowen) 24.39 AR South Central
94 University of Baltimore  12.4 MD Midsouth
58 University of California (Berkeley)   17.11 CA Far West
53 University of California (Davis)   17.61 CA Far West
44 University of California (Hastings)   19.11 CA Far West
34 University of California (Los Angeles)   23.21 CA Far West
168 University of Chicago -4.5 IL Great Lakes
132 University of Cincinnati  6.9 OH Great Lakes
147 University of Colorado (Boulder)   3.7 CO Mountain West
118 University of Connecticut  8.86 CT New England
106 University of Dayton  10.4 OH Great Lakes
147 University of Denver  3.7 CO Mountain West
158 University of Detroit Mercy  0.4 MI Great Lakes
179 University of District of Columbia -17.47 PR Southeast
56 University of Florida (Levin)  17.43 FL Southeast
12 University of Georgia  28.23 GA Southeast
180 University of Hawaii  -18.89 HI Far West
51 University of Houston  17.99 TX South Central
73 University of Idaho  15.6 ID Mountain West
163 University of Illinois (Urbana-Champaign)  -1.6 IL Great Lakes
161 University of Iowa  -0.38 IA Midwest
154 University of Kansas  1.62 KS Midwest
17 University of Kentucky  25.8 KY Midsouth
25 University of Louisville (Brandeis)   24.5 KY Midsouth
45 University of Maine  19.06 ME New England
107 University of Maryland  10.1 MD Midsouth
43 University of Memphis  19.6 TN Midsouth
103 University of Miami  11.13 FL Southeast
150 University of Michigan (Ann Arbor)   3.1 MI Great Lakes
134 University of Minnesota (Twin Cities)   6.5 MN Great Lakes
4 University of Mississippi  34.43 MS Southeast
138 University of Missouri (Columbia)   5.92 MO Midwest
141 University of Missouri (Kansas City)   4.92 MO Midwest
55 University of Montana  17.5 MT Mountain West
123 University of Nebraska–Lincoln   7.92 NE Midwest
6 University of Nevada  32.11 NV Far West
177 University of New Mexico  -12.9 NM Mountain West
82 University of North Carolina–Chapel Hill   13.4 NC Midsouth
149 University of North Dakota  3.52 ND Midwest
32 University of Oklahoma  23.69 OK South Central
84 University of Oregon  13.38 OR Northwest
139 University of Pennsylvania  5.31 PA Northeast
29 University of Pittsburgh  24.21 PA Northeast
185 University of Puerto Rico -55.97 PR Southeast
18 University of Richmond  25.5 VA Midsouth
22 University of San Diego  24.71 CA Far West
37 University of San Francisco  22.51 CA Far West
2 University of South Carolina  37.03 SC Southeast
144 University of South Dakota  4.72 SD Midwest
113 University of Southern California 9.21 CA Far West
47 University of Tennessee (Knoxville)   18.8 TN Midsouth
68 University of Texas (Austin)  16.19 TX South Central
10 University of the Pacific (McGeorge)  30.11 CA Far West
54 University of Toledo  17.6 OH Great Lakes
50 University of Tulsa  18.39 OK South Central
101 University of Utah (S.J. Quinney)   11.5 UT Mountain West
63 University of Virginia  16.5 VA Midsouth
152 University of Washington  2.38 WA Northwest
157 University of Wisconsin (Madison)   0.9 WI Great Lakes
81 University of Wyoming  13.6 WY Mountain West
79 Valparaiso University 13.9 IN Great Lakes
128 Vanderbilt University 7.1 TN Midsouth
104 Vermont Law School  10.46 VT New England
38 Villanova University 22.21 PA Northeast
35 Wake Forest University 22.8 NC Midsouth
153 Washburn University 2.12 KS Midwest
75 Washington and Lee University  15.1 VA Midsouth
169 Washington University in St. Louis -4.68 MO Midwest
116 Wayne State University 9 MI Great Lakes
30 West Virginia University  24.1 WV Midsouth
104 Western New England College  10.46 MA New England
120 Western State University 8.61 CA Far West
110 Whittier Law School 9.81 CA Far West
23 Widener University 24.7 DE Midsouth
66 Willamette University 16.28 OR Northwest
67 William and Mary Law School  16.2 VA Midsouth
89 William Mitchell College of Law  13 MN Great Lakes
175 Yale University -9.34 CT New England

 

 

 

 

 

 

 


 

Whitest Public Law Schools (State Population)

 

 SchoolStateExcess Whiteness
1 Texas Tech University  TX 38.32
2 University of Houston  TX 33.52
3 University of Texas (Austin)  TX 31.72
4 University of Mississippi  MS 31.56
5 University of California (Los Angeles)   CA 30.49
6 University of South Carolina  SC 28.67
7 Southern Illinois University-Carbondale  IL 27.86
8 University of California (Hastings)   CA 26.39
9 University at Buffalo NY 26.36
10 Georgia State University  GA 25.86

 

Discussion   

This listing ranks the public law schools on whether they are serving white citizens better than the rest of their state population. 

Specifically, excess whiteness in law school was calculated using two different base populations. 

 

First,  using the population of the state 21-39 years old. This population group was used because for most schools this age group accounts for most of the law students.  Second, using the law school applications. 

This page report is based on state population. Specifically, excess whiteness was calculated by taking the based population, such as "% state population 21 to 39 year old: White only" and subtracting it from "%whiteness in the law school".   The data sets from the census bureau were used to calculate total population between 21-39 and white population between 21-39. Specifically, Census 2000 Summary File 1 (SF 1) 100-Percent Data set, detailed tables.

td>So, for example, Texas Tech has 85.7% white students while the state of Texas only has 47.38% Whites between the age 21 to 39 years old.  The disparity (excess whiteness) between whiteness in the student body and in the state is 38.32 percentage points. That is, based on the population of the state, only 47.38% of Texas Tech Student body should be white. 

  The greater the disparity the higher the rank. Ranking is based on excess whiteness not actual percentage of white students.  That is the disparity between the percentage of whites in the law school from the percentage of whites in the state between 21-39 years old.

 

While there are a number of reasons why the disparity exist the difference is so significant, a state has to be concern whether its public institutions are preparing lawyers to match the racial diversity of its population.

Descriptive Statistics (Historically White Law Schools)

For the seventy-four public law schools, the average excess whiteness based on state population is 11.80 percentage points; half of the schools have excess whiteness below 8.61 percentage points.  In fact, 11 (14.9%) have no excess whiteness and  another 11 (14.9%)  have less than 5.00 percentage points excess whiteness.  For example, if a state population between 21-39 is 50% white, the average law school would have whiteness 61.8 %  (11.8 Excess Whiteness Percentage Points)

 

  27 (37.5%) have significant excess whiteness with excesses over 15.00 percentage points. (See Table)  For 19 schools, the disparity between the whiteness of the state and the whiteness of the law school is over 20 percentage points.  
  Five schools have excess whiteness percentage points over 30.0. Those schools were Texas Tech University, University of Houston, University of Texas (Austin), University of Mississippi and University of California (Los Angeles).
  Based on percentage of whites in the law school, some schools in the Top Ten have a low percentage of whites in the student body. 
  For instance, the University of New Mexico has 65.2% whiteness and  the University of California Davis has 65.2% whiteness). 
  However, when compared to the percentage of whites between ages 21-39 in their respective states, these schools still have a high percentage of whiteness in the law school. For instance, New Mexico's white population between 21-39 years old is only  39.54% and California is 40.81%. 
  There are a number of factors that can affect why such disparities exist , i.e.  interest in law school, preparedness for law school, etc.,  however as state schools such large disparities may  also represent a failure of the law school to adequately serve the needs of the state by assuring access to legal education to all citizens of their state.

 Descriptive Statistics (Top Ten)

 

The Top Ten Whitest Public Law School all have excess whiteness of 25 percentage points or more. For example, if a state population between 21-39 is 50% white, the law school would have whiteness over 75%  (25 percentage points Excess Whiteness)

 

Half The Top Ten Whitest Public Law School have excesses over 29.58 percentage points and the average is 30.08 percentage points ; the minimum is 25.86 and the maximum is 38.32.

 States

  With the attack on affirmative action it is probably of no surprise that Texas with Hopwood  has three schools on the Top Ten Whitest Public Law School list and California with Proposition 209 has two schools. 
  However,  the disparities is striking and one wonders if the difference can all be accounted for by demise of affirmative action.

  Regions:

  The regions are based on Law school admission council (LSAC) designation. They include: NortheastNew EnglandSouth CentralSouth EastMidSouthMidwestGreat LakesMountain WestNorthwest, and Far West.
  Great Lakes has the lowest minimum excess percentage points (-9.61); South Central has the highest (38.32); Southeast has the highest mean (24.15) and Midwest has the lowest mean (3.27); Southeast also has the highest median (25.56) and Great Lakes has the lowest median (3.56).
 

Six (6)  of The Top Ten Whitest Public Law School are  from the south. 

  Of the 13 public law schools with disparities in percentage points greater than 25,  60% are in the south.
  None of the schools in the southeast have excess whiteness below 15.00 points; all of the schools in New England have excess whiteness points below 15.00 points.
  Of the 11 schools with no excess whiteness, 72.7% are in the Midwest/Great Lakes region
  The difference among region is statistically significant (p=.000). That is, there is less than a .00 probability that the difference occurred by chance alone. Given that the highest medians occurred in three regions (Southcentral, Southeast and Far west) provides some indication that attacks on affirmative action is making our power base (lawyers) more white.

 Tier :  

 

3 of  Top Ten Whitest Public Law Schools are 1st tier schools and 5 are 2nd tier

  68.9% (51) Historically White Public Law School are 1st tier or 2nd tier 2. In fact, only 9.5% (7) are 4th tier law schools.
  The 1st tier have lowest minimum excess whiteness percentage points (-9.61); 4th tier have the highest maximum excess whiteness percentage points (38.32); 3rd Tier have the lowest mean (6.84) and 4th tier have the highest mean (13.49); 4th tier have the lowest median (6.82) and 1st tier have the highest median (15.09)
  2nd tier law schools have highest percentage of schools (26.9%) with excess white percentage points over 25.00. In fact, 53.8% of all schools with excess percentage points over 25 points were 2nd tier school. 
  The difference among tiers is not statistically significant.

  

 

 

 

Top Ten Whitest  Public Law Schools  Historically White  Public Law Schools

Descriptive Statistics for Top Ten Public Law Schools Based on State Population Age 21 to 39 years old

Mean 30.08
Median 29.58
Minimum 25.86
Maximum 38.32

Descriptive Statistics  for Historically White Public Law Schools Based on State Population Age 21 to 39 years old

Number

74

Mean

11.80

Median 8.61
Minimum -9.61
Maximum 38.32
  
 

Descriptive Statistics  for Historically White Public Law Schools Based on State Population Age 21 to 39 years old (Groupings)

 

Frequency

Percent

No Excess

11

14.9

.01 to 4.99

11

14.9

5.00 to 14.99

25

33.8

15.00 to 24.99

14

18.9

25.00 to 39.99

13

17.6

Total

74

100.0

 

Tier of  Top Ten Whitest Public Law Schools Based on State Population Age 21 to 39 years old

 

Frequency

Percent

1st Tier (USNews)

3

30.0

2nd Tier (USNews)

5

50.0

3rd Tier (USNews)

1

10.0

4th Tier (USNews)

1

10.0

Tier

Tier of  Whitest Public Law Schools Based on State Population (n=74) Age 21 to 39 years old

 

Frequency

Percent

1st Tier (USNews)

25

33.8

2nd Tier (USNews)

26

35.1

3rd Tier (USNews)

14

18.9

4th Tier (USNews)

7

9.5

No US News Ranking

2

2.7

Tier

Minimum

Maximum

Mean

Median

N

1st Tier (USNews)

-9.61

31.72

12.7740

15.0900

25

2nd Tier (USNews)

-1.04

33.52

13.0700

8.1500

26

3rd Tier (USNews)

-3.10

27.86

6.8386

7.5500

14

4th Tier (USNews)

2.96

38.32

13.4871

6.8200

7

No US News Ranking

2.86

21.18

12.0200

12.0200

2

Total

-9.61

38.32

11.8022

8.6100

74

Sum of Squares

df

Mean Square

F

Sig.

430.295

4

107.574

.896

.471

Excess Whiteness by Tier Public Law Schools Based on State Population Age 21 to 39 years old (n=74) (Percentage in rows read across)
 

No Excess

.01 to 4.99

5.00 to 14.99

15.00 to 24.99

25.00 to 39.99

1st Tier (USNews)

20.0%

8.0%

20.0%

36.0%

16.0%

2nd Tier (USNews)

11.5%

15.4%

34.6%

11.5%

26.9%

3rd Tier (USNews)

21.4%

14.3%

57.1%

 

7.1%

4th Tier (USNews)

  

28.6%

42.9%

14.3%

14.3%

No US News Ranking

   

50.0%

  

50.0%

 

Excess Whiteness by Tier Public Law Schools Based on State Population Age 21 to 39 years old (n=74) (Percentage in columns read down)

 

No Excess

.01 to 4.99

5.00 to 14.99

15.00 to 24.99

25.00 to 39.99

 

1st Tier (USNews)

45.5%

18.2%

20.0%

64.3%

30.8%

33.8%

2nd Tier (USNews)

27.3%

36.4%

36.0%

21.4%

53.8%

35.1%

3rd Tier (US Nres)

27.3%

18.2%

32.0%

 

7.7%

18.9%

4th Tier (US News)

  

18.2%

12.0%

7.1%

7.7%

9.5%

No US News Ranking

  

9.1%

 

7.1%

 

2.7%

   

Value

Asymp. Std. Error

Approx. T

Approx. Sig.

Ordinal by Ordinal

Spearman Correlation

-.137

.114

-1.173

.245

 
Regions where Top Ten Whitest Public Law Schools Located
 

Frequency

Percent

New England

1

10.0

South Central

3

30.0

Southeast

3

30.0

Great Lakes

1

10.0

Far West

2

20.0

Regions where Whitest Public Law Schools Located
 

Frequency

Percent

Northeast

7

9.5

New England

2

2.7

Southcentral

7

9.5

Southeast

7

9.5

Midsouth

13

17.6

Midwest

8

10.8

Great Lakes

14

18.9

Mountain West

8

10.8

Northwest

2

2.7

Far West

6

8.1

Region

Minimum

Maximum

Mean

Median

N

Northeast

-.02

26.36

10.2371

7.9800

7

New England

-.59

13.13

6.2700

6.2700

2

Southcentral

5.85

38.32

23.0386

25.0100

7

Southeast

15.09

31.56

24.1471

25.5600

7

Midsouth

-3.10

21.91

10.6054

9.5400

13

Midwest

-7.01

7.82

3.2700

6.1300

8

Great Lakes

-9.61

27.86

4.6521

3.5600

14

Mountain West

4.53

25.66

11.2725

9.5450

8

Northwest

.16

7.57

3.8650

3.8650

2

Far West

4.45

30.49

21.9650

24.6400

6

Total

-9.61

38.32

11.8022

8.6100

7

Sum of Squares

df

Mean Square

F

Sig.

4093.605

9

454.845

6.295

.000

Excess Whiteness by Region Public Law Schools Based on State Population Age 21 to 39 years old (n=74) (Percentage in rows read across)

 

No Excess

.01 to 4.99

5.00 to 14.99

15.00 to 24.99

25.00 to 39.99

Northeast

14.3%

28.6%

28.6%

14.3%

14.3%

New England

50.0%

 

50.0%

   

Southcentral

   

28.6%

14.3%

57.1%

Southeast

  

  

  

42.9%

57.1%

Midsouth

7.7%

30.8%

23.1%

38.5%

   

Midwest

25.0%

12.5%

62.5%

  

   

Great Lakes

42.9%

7.1%

42.9%

  

7.1%

Mountain West

  

12.5%

62.5%

12.5%

12.5%

Northwest

   

50.0%

50.0%

   

Far West

   

16.7%

  

50.0%

33.3%

Excess Whiteness by Region Public Law Schools Based on State Population Age 21 to 39 years old (n=74) (Percentage in columns read down)

 

No Excess

.01 to 4.99

5.00 to 14.99

15.00 to 24.99

25.00 to 39.99

Northeast

9.1%

18.2%

8.0%

7.1%

7.7%

New England

9.1%

 

4.0%

 

  

Southcentral

 

  

8.0%

7.1%

30.8%

Southeast

 

  

 

21.4%

30.8%

Midsouth

9.1%

36.4%

12.0%

35.7%

 

Midwest

18.2%

9.1%

20.0%

 

  

Great Lakes

54.5%

9.1%

24.0%

  

7.7%

Mountain West

  

9.1%

20.0%

7.1%

7.7%

Northwest

 

9.1%

4.0%

   

Far West

 

9.1%

 

21.4%

15.4%

Symmetric Measures
   

Value

Asymp. Std. Error

Approx. T

Approx. Sig.

Ordinal by Ordinal

Spearman Correlation

-.131

.125

-1.125

.264

 
 

States Where Top Ten  Whitest Public Law Schools Located

CA

2

GA

1

IL

1

MS

1

NY

1

SC

1

TX

3

 

 

Excess Whiteness in Public Law Schools (Ranking) Based on State Population Age 21 to 39 years old

 SchoolState%Whiteness of School% Whiteness in State Population 21-39Excess Whiteness
1 Texas Tech University  TX 85.7 47.38 38.32
2 University of Houston  TX 80.9 47.38 33.52
3 University of Texas (Austin)  TX 79.1 47.38 31.72
4 University of Mississippi  MS 90.4 58.84 31.56
5 University of California (Los Angeles)   CA 71.3 40.81 30.49
6 University of South Carolina  SC 93 64.33 28.67
7 Southern Illinois University-Carbondale  IL 91.2 63.34 27.86
8 University of California (Hastings)   CA 67.2 40.81 26.39
9 University at Buffalo NY 82.9 56.54 26.36
10 Georgia State University  GA 84.5 58.64 25.86
11 University of New Mexico  NM 65.2 39.54 25.66
12 University of Georgia  GA 84.2 58.64 25.56
13 Louisiana State University–Baton Rouge  LA 86.3 61.29 25.01
14 University of California (Davis)   CA 65.7 40.81 24.89
15 University of California (Berkeley)   CA 65.2 40.81 24.39
16 University of Alabama  AL 91.1 68.42 22.68
17 Rutgers State University–Camden NJ 81.5 59.2 22.3
18 University of Baltimore  MD 79.3 57.39 21.91
19 University of Nevada  NV 80.2 59.02 21.18
20 University of Maryland  MD 77 57.39 19.61
21 Florida State University  FL 77.7 58.31 19.39
22 George Mason University VA 85.3 66.74 18.56
23 University of Virginia  VA 83.4 66.74 16.66
24 William and Mary Law School  VA 83.1 66.74 16.36
25 University of Oklahoma  OK 86.6 71 15.6
26 University of Arizona (Rogers)  AZ 72.9 57.73 15.17
27 University of Florida (Levin)  FL 73.4 58.31 15.09
28 Northern Illinois University  IL 77.4 63.34 14.06
29 University of North Carolina–Chapel Hill   NC 80.3 66.81 13.49
30 University of Connecticut  CT 85.1 71.97 13.13
31 Arizona State University  AZ 69.3 57.73 11.57
32 University of Arkansas (Little Rock)  (Bowen) AR 87.3 76.05 11.25
33 University of Colorado (Boulder)   CO 81.8 71.04 10.76
34 University of Illinois (Urbana-Champaign)  IL 73.1 63.34 9.76
35 University of Toledo  OH 92.3 82.64 9.66
36 University of Memphis  TN 86.5 76.96 9.54
37 University of Tennessee (Knoxville)   TN 85.7 76.96 8.74
38 University of Pittsburgh  PA 89.9 81.42 8.48
39 University of Idaho  ID 93.7 85.37 8.33
40 Penn State University (Dickinson School of Law) PA 89.4 81.42 7.98
41 University of Missouri (Columbia)   MO 89.6 81.78 7.82
42 University of Akron OH 90.4 82.64 7.76
43 Wayne State University MI 83.7 76.04 7.66
44 University of Oregon  OR 86.4 78.83 7.57
45 University of Nebraska–Lincoln   NE 91.6 84.13 7.47
46 University of Montana  MT 95.6 88.26 7.34
47 University of Missouri (Kansas City)   MO 88.6 81.78 6.82
48 University of Utah (S.J. Quinney)   UT 89.6 82.78 6.82
49 Washburn University KS 85.8 79.42 6.38
50 University of Kansas  KS 85.3 79.42 5.88
51 University of Arkansas (Fayetteville )   AR 81.9 76.05 5.85
52 Cleveland State University (Marshall) OH 88 82.64 5.36
53 Northern Kentucky University (Chase) KY 92.9 87.92 4.98
54 University of Kentucky  KY 92.7 87.92 4.78
55 University of Wyoming  WY 91.7 87.17 4.53
56 University of Hawaii  HI 29.2 24.75 4.45
57 Rutgers State University–Newark NJ 62.8 59.2 3.6
58 University of Louisville (Brandeis)   KY 91.4 87.92 3.48
59 CUNY-Queens College  NY 59.5 56.54 2.96
60 University of District of Columbia DC 38.5 35.64 2.86
61 University of South Dakota  SD 88.4 86.59 1.81
62 University of Michigan (Ann Arbor)   MI 77.8 76.04 1.76
63 University of Washington  WA 75.4 75.24 0.16
64 Temple University (Beasley)  PA 81.4 81.42 -0.02
65 Indiana University–Indianapolis  IN 83.4 83.8 -0.4
66 University of Maine  ME 95.3 95.89 -0.59
67 University of Cincinnati  OH 81.6 82.64 -1.04
68 Ohio State University (Moritz) OH 81 82.64 -1.64
69 Indiana University–Bloomington  IN 82 83.8 -1.8
70 University of North Dakota  ND 87.2 90.21 -3.01
71 West Virginia University  WV 91 94.1 -3.1
72 University of Minnesota (Twin Cities)   MN 81.2 85.46 -4.26
73 University of Iowa  IA 83.3 90.31 -7.01
74 University of Wisconsin (Madison)   WI 75.6 85.21 -9.61

 

Excess Whiteness in Public Law Schools (Alphabetical Listing)

 SchoolState%Whiteness of School% Whiteness in State Population 21-39Excess Whiteness 
31 Arizona State University  AZ 69.3 57.73 11.57
52 Cleveland State University (Marshall) OH 88 82.64 5.36
59 CUNY-Queens College  NY 59.5 56.54 2.96
21 Florida State University  FL 77.7 58.31 19.39
22 George Mason University VA 85.3 66.74 18.56
10 Georgia State University  GA 84.5 58.64 25.86
69 Indiana University–Bloomington  IN 82 83.8 -1.8
65 Indiana University–Indianapolis  IN 83.4 83.8 -0.4
13 Louisiana State University–Baton Rouge  LA 86.3 61.29 25.01
28 Northern Illinois University  IL 77.4 63.34 14.06
53 Northern Kentucky University (Chase) KY 92.9 87.92 4.98
68 Ohio State University (Moritz) OH 81 82.64 -1.64
40 Penn State University (Dickinson School of Law) PA 89.4 81.42 7.98
17 Rutgers State University–Camden NJ 81.5 59.2 22.3
57 Rutgers State University–Newark NJ 62.8 59.2 3.6
7 Southern Illinois University-Carbondale  IL 91.2 63.34 27.86
64 Temple University (Beasley)  PA 81.4 81.42 -0.02
1 Texas Tech University  TX 85.7 47.38 38.32
9 University at Buffalo NY 82.9 56.54 26.36
42 University of Akron OH 90.4 82.64 7.76
16 University of Alabama  AL 91.1 68.42 22.68
26 University of Arizona (Rogers)  AZ 72.9 57.73 15.17
51 University of Arkansas (Fayetteville )   AR 81.9 76.05 5.85
32 University of Arkansas (Little Rock)  (Bowen) AR 87.3 76.05 11.25
18 University of Baltimore  MD 79.3 57.39 21.91
15 University of California (Berkeley)   CA 65.2 40.81 24.39
14 University of California (Davis)   CA 65.7 40.81 24.89
8 University of California (Hastings)   CA 67.2 40.81 26.39
5 University of California (Los Angeles)   CA 71.3 40.81 30.49
67 University of Cincinnati  OH 81.6 82.64 -1.04
33 University of Colorado (Boulder)   CO 81.8 71.04 10.76
30 University of Connecticut  CT 85.1 71.97 13.13
60 University of District of Columbia DC 38.5 35.64 2.86
27 University of Florida (Levin)  FL 73.4 58.31 15.09
12 University of Georgia  GA 84.2 58.64 25.56
56 University of Hawaii  HI 29.2 24.75 4.45
2 University of Houston  TX 80.9 47.38 33.52
39 University of Idaho  ID 93.7 85.37 8.33
34 University of Illinois (Urbana-Champaign)  IL 73.1 63.34 9.76
73 University of Iowa  IA 83.3 90.31 -7.01
50 University of Kansas  KS 85.3 79.42 5.88
54 University of Kentucky  KY 92.7 87.92 4.78
58 University of Louisville (Brandeis)   KY 91.4 87.92 3.48
66 University of Maine  ME 95.3 95.89 -0.59
20 University of Maryland  MD 77 57.39 19.61
36 University of Memphis  TN 86.5 76.96 9.54
62 University of Michigan (Ann Arbor)   MI 77.8 76.04 1.76
72 University of Minnesota (Twin Cities)   MN 81.2 85.46 -4.26
4 University of Mississippi  MS 90.4 58.84 31.56
41 University of Missouri (Columbia)   MO 89.6 81.78 7.82
47 University of Missouri (Kansas City)   MO 88.6 81.78 6.82
46 University of Montana  MT 95.6 88.26 7.34
45 University of Nebraska–Lincoln   NE 91.6 84.13 7.47
19 University of Nevada  NV 80.2 59.02 21.18
11 University of New Mexico  NM 65.2 39.54 25.66
29 University of North Carolina–Chapel Hill   NC 80.3 66.81 13.49
70 University of North Dakota  ND 87.2 90.21 -3.01
25 University of Oklahoma  OK 86.6 71 15.6
44 University of Oregon  OR 86.4 78.83 7.57
38 University of Pittsburgh  PA 89.9 81.42 8.48
6 University of South Carolina  SC 93 64.33 28.67
61 University of South Dakota  SD 88.4 86.59 1.81
37 University of Tennessee (Knoxville)   TN 85.7 76.96 8.74
3 University of Texas (Austin)  TX 79.1 47.38 31.72
35 University of Toledo  OH 92.3 82.64 9.66
48 University of Utah (S.J. Quinney)   UT 89.6 82.78 6.82
23 University of Virginia  VA 83.4 66.74 16.66
63 University of Washington  WA 75.4 75.24 0.16
74 University of Wisconsin (Madison)   WI 75.6 85.21 -9.61
55 University of Wyoming  WY 91.7 87.17 4.53
49 Washburn University KS 85.8 79.42 6.38
43 Wayne State University MI 83.7 76.04 7.66
71 West Virginia University  WV 91 94.1 -3.1
24 William and Mary Law School  VA 83.1 66.74 16.36

 


 

Whitest Public Law Schools (LSAC Applications)

Rank School State Excess Whiteness
1 Texas Tech University  TX 26.2%
2 University of Baltimore  MD 25.5%
3 University of Maryland  MD 23.2%
4 University of California (Los Angeles)   CA 23.2%
5 Southern Illinois University-Carbondale  IL 22.6%
6 Georgia State University  GA 22.2%
7 Golden Gate University CA 22.1%
8 University of Georgia  GA 21.9%
9 University of Houston  TX 21.4%
10 University at Buffalo NY 21.1%
10 University of Mississippi  MS 21.1%

 

Discussion  

  Public law schools are supported by the taxes of the citizens of their state. They have a responsibility to serve all the citizens.  

This listing ranks the public law schools on whether they are serving white citizens better than the rest of their state population. 

Specifically, excess whiteness in law school was calculated  using two different base populations. 

First,  using the population of the state 21-39 years old.  Second, using the law school applications as a basis. 

This page report is based on LSAC Applications from the state. Specifically, excess whiteness was calculated by taking the based LSAC state applications and calculated % of the applications that were from white applicants  and subtracting the "%whiteness in the law school" from it. 

LSAC State Applications does not represent the application pool to a particular institution but the number of applicants in the general pool who listed the state as their home.  The actual applicant pool to a particular state could be significant different. (note added: 04/16/04)

  The greater the disparity the higher the rank. Ranking is based on excess whiteness not actual percentage of white students.  That is the disparity between the percentage of whites in the law school from the percentage of whites in the LSAC state applications.
  So, for example, Texas Tech has 85.7% white students. In 2002 there was 6797 LSAC applications from the state of Texas. Of those applications, 4043 or 59.5% were from white applicants .   Consequently, the disparity (excess whiteness) between whiteness in the student body and n the state application pool is  26.2 percentage points. That is, based on the LSAC applications from the state, only 5i9.5% of Texas Tech Student body should be white.
  While there are a number of reasons why the disparity exist, where the difference is significant, a state has to be concern about whether its public institutions are preparing a group of lawyers to match the racial diversity of its population.

 

Descriptive Statistics (Historically White Law Schools)

  For the seventy-four public law schools, the average excess whiteness based on LSAC State Applications is 9.86 percentage points; half of the schools have excess whiteness below 9.55 percentage points.  In fact, 9 (12.2%) have no excess whiteness and  another 15 (20.3%)  have less than 5.00 percentage points excess whiteness.  For example, if a LSAC State Applications was 50% white, the average law school would have whiteness 59.86 %  (9.86 Excess Whiteness Percentage Points)
  On the other hand 24 (31.4%) have significant excess whiteness with excesses over 15.00 percentage points. (See Table)  For 12 schools, the disparity between the whiteness of the applications from the state and the whiteness of the law school is over 20 percentage points.  
  No schools had Excess whiteness percentage points over 30.0.
  Based on percentage of whites in the law school, some schools in the Top Ten have remarkably low percentage of whites in the student body. For instance, the Golden Gate has 70.2% whiteness and  the University of California (Los Angeles)  has 71.3% whiteness.  However, when compared to the percentage of whites in LSAC State applications in their respective states, these schools still have a unusually high percentage of whiteness in the law school. Only 48.1% of the LSAC applications from California were from white applicants.
  There are a number of factors that can affect why such disparities exist , i.e.  interest in law school, preparedness for law school, etc.,  however as state schools such large disparities may  also represent a failure of the law school to adequately serve the needs of the state by assuring access to legal education to all citizens of their state.

 

 

Descriptive Statistics (Top Ten)

 

The Top Ten Whitest Public Law School based on LSAC Application all have excess whiteness of 20 percentage points or more. For example, if a LSAC State Applications was 50% white, the law school would have whiteness over 70%  (20 percentage points excess whiteness)

 

Half The Top Ten Whitest Public Law School have excesses over 22.4 percentage points and the average is 22.8 percentage points ; the minimum is 21.10 and the maximum is 26.20.

 States

  With the attack on affirmative action it is probably of no surprise that Texas with Hopwood  has two schools on the Top Ten Whitest Public Law School list and California with Proposition 209 has two schools. 
  However,  the disparities is striking and one wonders if the difference can all be accounted for by demise of affirmative action.

  Regions:

  The regions are based on Law school admission council (LSAC) designation. They include: Northeast, New England, South Central, South East, MidSouth, Midwest, Great Lakes, Mountain West, Northwest, and Far West.
  Midsouth has the lowest minimum excess percentage points (-17.20); South Central has the highest (26.20); Southeast has the highest mean (19.31) and Midwest has the lowest mean (2.27); Southcentral also has the highest median (20.60) and Mountain West has the lowest median (3.56).
 

Five (5)  of The Top Ten Whitest Public Law School are from the south. 

  Only two public law schools have disparities in percentage points greater than 25.
  None of the schools in the southeast have excess whiteness below 15.00 points; all of the schools in New England have excess whiteness points below 15.00 points;  Six regions have some schools with no excess whiteness.
  Of the 8 schools with no excess whiteness, 77.7%  are in the Midwest/Great Lakes/Mountain West region
  The difference among region is statistically significant (p=.03). That is, there is less than  3% probability that the difference occurred by chance alone. Given that the highest medians occurred in three regions (South central, Southeast and Far west) provides some indication that attacks on affirmative action is making the legal profession more white.

 Tier :  

  Tier designation is based on the 2003-2004 US News & World Report rankings.
 

3 of the Top Ten Whitest Public Law Schools are 1st tier schools and 4 are 2nd tier

  68.9% (51) of Historically White Public Law School are 1st tier or 2nd tier schools. In fact, only 9.5% (7) are 4th tier law schools.
  The 1st tier has the lowest minimum excess whiteness percentage points (-5.20); the 4th tier has the highest maximum excess whiteness percentage points (26.20); the 3rd tier has the lowest mean (7.14) and the 4th tier has the highest mean (12.09); the 4th tier has the lowest median (6.90) and the 1st tier has the highest median (12.00)
  The 4th tier law schools is the only tier to have schools with excess white percentage points over 25.00. 
  The difference among tiers is not statistically significant.

 

 

Top Ten Whitest Public Law Schools (LSAC State Applications)

Historically White Public Law Schools (n=74)

Descriptive Statistics for Top Ten Public Law Schools Based on LSAC Applications from State

 N

10

Mean

22.8400

Median

22.4000

Minimum

21.10

Maximum

26.20

Descriptive  Statistics for Public Law Schools Based on State LSAC Applications

N

 74

Mean

9.8568

Median

9.5500

Minimum

-17.20

Maximum

26.20

 

Excess Whiteness Grouping of  Top Ten Whitest Public Law Schools  Based on State LSAC Applications

 

Frequency

Percent

15.00 to 24.99

8

80.0

25.00 to 39.99

2

20.0

Total

10

100

Excess Whiteness Grouping of  Public Law Schools  Based on State LSAC Applications

 

Frequency

Percent

No excess

9

12.2

.01 to 4.99

15

20.3

5.00 to 14.99

26

35.1

15.00 to 24.99

22

29.7

25.00 to 39.99

2

2.7

 

Tier of  Top Ten  Whitest Public Law Schools  Based on State LSAC Applications

 

Frequency

Percent

1st Tier (USNews)

3

30.0

2nd Tier (USNews)

4

40.0

3rd Tier (USNews)

1

10.0

4th Tier (USNews)

2

20.0

Tier of  Whitest Public Law Schools Based on  State LSAC Applications

 

Frequency

Percent

1st Tier (USNews)

25

33.8

2nd Tier (USNews)

26

35.1

3rd Tier (USNews)

14

18.9

4th Tier (USNews)

7

9.5

No US News Ranking

2

2.7

Tier

Minimum

Maximum

Mean

Median

N

1st Tier (USNews)

-5.20

23.20

10.6760

12.0000

25

2nd Tier (USNews)

-3.60

22.20

10.8308

10.5000

26

3rd Tier (USNews)

-2.70

22.60

7.1357

6.9000

14

4th Tier (USNews)

-2.30

26.20

12.0857

9.1000

7

No US News Ranking

-17.20

13.60

-1.8000

-1.8000

2

Total

-17.20

26.20

9.8568

9.5500

7

Sum of Squares

df

Mean Square

F

Sig.

451.640

4

112.910

1.499

.212

Excess Whiteness by Tier Public Law Schools Based on State LSAC Populations (Percentage in rows read across)

 

No excess

.01 to 4.99

5.00 to 14.99

15.00 to 24.99

25.00 to 39.99

1st Tier (USNews)

16.0%

24.0%

12.0%

48.0%

 

2nd Tier (USNews)

3.8%

23.1%

38.5%

34.6%

 

3rd Tier (USNews)

14.3%

21.4%

57.1%

7.1%

 

4th Tier (USNews)

14.3%

 

57.1%

 

28.6%

No US News Ranking

50.0%

 

50.0%

   
 

12.2%

20.3%

35.1%

29.7%

2.7%

 

Value

Asymp. Std. Error

Approx. T

Approx. Sig.

Spearman Correlation

-.093

.129

-.793

.431

Excess Whiteness by Tier Public Law Schools Based on State LSAC Populations (Percentage in columns read down)

 

No excess

.01 to 4.99

5.00 to 14.99

15.00 to 24.99

25.00 to 39.99

1st Tier (USNews)

44.4%

40.0%

11.5%

54.5%

 

2nd Tier (USNews)

11.1%

40.0%

38.5%

40.9%

 

3rd Tier (US Nres)

22.2%

20.0%

30.8%

4.5%

 

4th Tier (US News)

11.1%

 

15.4%

 

100.0%

No US News Ranking

11.1%

 

3.8%

   
Symmetric Measures
 

Value

Asymp. Std. Error

Approx. T

Approx. Sig.

Spearman Correlation

-.137

.114

-1.173

.245

 

Region of  Top Ten Whitest Public Law Schools  Based on State LSAC Applications

 

Frequency

Percent

Northeast

1

10.0

Southcentral

2

20.0

Southeast

3

30.0

Midsouth

2

20.0

Great Lakes

1

10.0

Far West

1

10.0

Total

10

100.0

Regions where  Whitest Public Law Schools are Located

 

Frequency

Percent

Northeast

7

9.5

New England

2

2.7

Southcentral

7

9.5

Southeast

7

9.5

Midsouth

13

17.6

Midwest

8

10.8

Great Lakes

14

18.9

Mountain West

8

10.8

Northwest

2

2.7

Far West

6

8.1

Region

Minimum

Maximum

Mean

Median

N

Northeast

-2.30

21.10

9.0000

10.8000

7

New England

7.50

12.00

9.7500

9.7500

2

Southcentral

.90

26.20

15.8429

19.6000

7

Southeast

15.80

22.20

19.3143

20.6000

7

Midsouth

-17.20

25.50

10.9385

12.5000

13

Midwest

-3.90

10.70

2.2750

.8500

8

Great Lakes

-5.20

22.60

7.0571

6.7000

14

Mountain West

-3.60

10.30

3.7625

3.7000

8

Northwest

4.20

9.40

6.8000

6.8000

2

Far West

7.30

23.20

16.3167

17.3500

6

Total

-17.20

26.20

9.8568

9.5500

74

Sum of Squares

df

Mean Square

F

Sig.

2033.104

9

225.900

3.999

.000

Excess Whiteness by Region Public Law Schools Based on State LSAC Populations (Percentage in rows read across)

 

No excess

.01 to 4.99

5.00 to 14.99

15.00 to 24.99

25.00 to 39.99

Total %

Northeast

14.3%

28.6%

28.6%

28.6%

  100%

New England

   

100.0%

  

  100%

Southcentral

 

14.3%

14.3%

57.1%

14.3%

100%

Southeast

     

100.0%

  100%

Midsouth

7.7%

7.7%

46.2%

30.8%

7.7%

100%

Midwest

37.5%

37.5%

25.0%

    100%

Great Lakes

14.3%

28.6%

50.0%

7.1%

  

100%

Mountain West

25.0%

37.5%

37.5%

  

  

100%

Northwest

  

50.0%

50.0%

  

  

100%

Far West

  

  

33.3%

66.7%

  100%

 Total

12.2%

20.3%

35.1%

29.7%

2.7%

100%
Symmetric Measures
 

Value

Asymp. Std. Error

Approx. T

Approx. Sig.

Spearman Correlation

-.253

.116

-2.219

.030

Excess Whiteness by Region Public Law Schools Based on State LSAC Populations (Percentage in columns read down)

 

No excess

.01 to 4.99

5.00 to 14.99

15.00 to 24.99

25.00 to 39.99

Northeast

11.1%

13.3%

7.7%

9.1%

 

New England

   

 

7.7%

   

Southcentral

 

6.7%

3.8%

18.2%

50.0%

Southeast

  

   

31.8%

  

Midsouth

11.1%

6.7%

23.1%

18.2%

50.0%

Midwest

33.3%

20.0%

7.7%

  

  

Great Lakes

22.2%

26.7%

26.9%

4.5%

 

Mountain West

22.2%

20.0%

11.5%

  

  

Northwest

  

6.7%

3.8%

 

  

Far West

  

   

18.2%

 
 

100.0%

100.0%

100.0%

100.0%

100.0%

Value

Asymp. Std. Error

Approx. T

Approx. Sig.

-.253

.116

-2.219

.030

 

State of  Top Ten Whitest Public Law Schools  Based on State LSAC Applications

 

Frequency

Percent

CA

1

10.0

GA

2

20.0

IL

1

10.0

MD

2

20.0

MS

1

10.0

NY

1

10.0

TX

2

20.0

Total

10

100.0

 

 

Excess Whiteness in Public Law Schools  Based on State LSAC Populations (Ranking)
Rank School State %Whiteness in Law School %Whiteness in State LSAC Applications Excess Whiteness
1 Texas Tech University  TX 85.7 59.5 26.2
2 University of Baltimore  MD 79.3 53.8 25.5
3 University of Maryland  MD 77 53.8 23.2
4 University of California (Los Angeles)   CA 71.3 48.1 23.2
5 Southern Illinois University-Carbondale  IL 91.2 68.6 22.6
6 Georgia State University  GA 84.5 62.3 22.2
7 Golden Gate University CA 70.2 48.1 22.1
8 University of Georgia  GA 84.2 62.3 21.9
9 University of Houston  TX 80.9 59.5 21.4
10 University at Buffalo NY 82.9 61.8 21.1
10 University of Mississippi  MS 90.4 69.3 21.1
12 Florida State University  FL 77.7 57.1 20.6
13 University of Texas (Austin)  TX 79.1 59.5 19.6
14 University of California (Hastings)   CA 67.2 48.1 19.1
15 Rutgers State University–Camden NJ 81.5 62.5 19
16 George Mason University VA 85.3 67.2 18.1
17 University of California (Davis)   CA 65.7 48.1 17.6
18 University of South Carolina  SC 93 75.7 17.3
19 University of California (Berkeley)   CA 65.2 48.1 17.1
20 University of Oklahoma  OK 86.6 69.9 16.7
21 University of Florida (Levin)  FL 73.4 57.1 16.3
22 University of Virginia  VA 83.4 67.2 16.2
23 William and Mary Law School  VA 83.1 67.2 15.9
24 University of Alabama  AL 91.1 75.3 15.8
25 Wayne State University MI 83.7 69.4 14.3
26 University of Nevada  NV 80.2 66.6 13.6
27 University of Toledo  OH 92.3 78.9 13.4
28 University of Memphis  TN 86.5 73.2 13.3
29 University of Tennessee (Knoxville)   TN 85.7 73.2 12.5
30 University of Connecticut  CT 85.1 73.1 12
31 University of North Carolina–Chapel Hill   NC 80.3 68.5 11.8
32 University of Akron OH 90.4 78.9 11.5
33 University of Pittsburgh  PA 89.9 78.6 11.3
34 University of Missouri (Columbia)   MO 89.6 78.9 10.7
35 University of New Mexico  NM 65.2 54.9 10.3
36 University of Missouri (Kansas City)   MO 88.6 78.9 9.7
37 University of Oregon  OR 86.4 77 9.4
38 University of Idaho  ID 93.7 84.5 9.2
39 Cleveland State University (Marshall) OH 88 78.9 9.1
40 Northern Illinois University  IL 77.4 68.6 8.8
41 University of Michigan (Ann Arbor)   MI 77.8 69.4 8.4
42 Northern Kentucky University (Chase) KY 92.9 85.3 7.6
43 University of Maine  ME 95.3 87.8 7.5
44 University of Kentucky  KY 92.7 85.3 7.4
45 University of Hawaii  HI 29.2 21.9 7.3
46 University of Arkansas (Little Rock)  (Bowen) AR 87.3 81 6.3
47 University of Louisville (Brandeis)   KY 91.4 85.3 6.1
48 University of Montana  MT 95.6 90.4 5.2
49 Indiana University–Indianapolis  IN 83.4 78.4 5
50 University of Illinois (Urbana-Champaign)  IL 73.1 68.6 4.5
51 University of Nebraska–Lincoln   NE 91.6 87.2 4.4
51 University of Utah (S.J. Quinney)   UT 89.6 85.2 4.4
53 University of Washington  WA 75.4 71.2 4.2
54 Indiana University–Bloomington  IN 82 78.4 3.6
55 University of Colorado (Boulder)   CO 81.8 78.8 3
56 Temple University (Beasley)  PA 81.4 78.6 2.8
57 University of Cincinnati  OH 81.6 78.9 2.7
58 Ohio State University (Moritz) OH 81 78.9 2.1
59 West Virginia University  WV 91 89.2 1.8
60 University of Chicago IL 70.2 68.6 1.6
60 University of Wyoming  WY 91.7 90.1 1.6
62 Washburn University KS 85.8 84.7 1.1
63 University of Arkansas (Fayetteville )   AR 81.9 81 0.9
64 University of Kansas  KS 85.3 84.7 0.6
65 Rutgers State University–Newark NJ 62.8 62.5 0.3
66 University of Arizona (Rogers)  AZ 72.9 72.9 0
67 University of South Dakota  SD 88.4 90.1 -1.7
68 University of Minnesota (Twin Cities)   MN 81.2 83.2 -2
69 CUNY-Queens College  NY 59.5 61.8 -2.3
70 University of North Dakota  ND 87.2 89.9 -2.7
71 Arizona State University  AZ 69.3 72.9 -3.6
72 University of Iowa  IA 83.3 87.2 -3.9
73 University of Wisconsin (Madison)   WI 75.6 80.8 -5.2
74 University of District of Columbia DC 38.5 55.7 -17.2

 

Excess Whiteness in Public Law Schools (N=74) Based on State LSAC Populations (Alphabetical Listing)
Rank School State %Whiteness in Law School %Whiteness in LSAC Applications Excess Whiteness
71 Arizona State University  AZ 69.3 72.9 -3.6
39 Cleveland State University (Marshall) OH 88 78.9 9.1
69 CUNY-Queens College  NY 59.5 61.8 -2.3
12 Florida State University  FL 77.7 57.1 20.6
16 George Mason University VA 85.3 67.2 18.1
6 Georgia State University  GA 84.5 62.3 22.2
7 Golden Gate University CA 70.2 48.1 22.1
54 Indiana University–Bloomington  IN 82 78.4 3.6
49 Indiana University–Indianapolis  IN 83.4 78.4 5
40 Northern Illinois University  IL 77.4 68.6 8.8
42 Northern Kentucky University (Chase) KY 92.9 85.3 7.6
58 Ohio State University (Moritz) OH 81 78.9 2.1
15 Rutgers State University–Camden NJ 81.5 62.5 19
65 Rutgers State University–Newark NJ 62.8 62.5 0.3
5 Southern Illinois University-Carbondale  IL 91.2 68.6 22.6
56 Temple University (Beasley)  PA 81.4 78.6 2.8
1 Texas Tech University  TX 85.7 59.5 26.2
10 University at Buffalo NY 82.9 61.8 21.1
32 University of Akron OH 90.4 78.9 11.5
24 University of Alabama  AL 91.1 75.3 15.8
66 University of Arizona (Rogers)  AZ 72.9 72.9 0
63 University of Arkansas (Fayetteville )   AR 81.9 81 0.9
46 University of Arkansas (Little Rock)  (Bowen) AR 87.3 81 6.3
2 University of Baltimore  MD 79.3 53.8 25.5
19 University of California (Berkeley)   CA 65.2 48.1 17.1
17 University of California (Davis)   CA 65.7 48.1 17.6
14 University of California (Hastings)   CA 67.2 48.1 19.1
4 University of California (Los Angeles)   CA 71.3 48.1 23.2
60 University of Chicago IL 70.2 68.6 1.6
57 University of Cincinnati  OH 81.6 78.9 2.7
55 University of Colorado (Boulder)   CO 81.8 78.8 3
30 University of Connecticut  CT 85.1 73.1 12
74 University of District of Columbia DC 38.5 55.7 -17.2
21 University of Florida (Levin)  FL 73.4 57.1 16.3
8 University of Georgia  GA 84.2 62.3 21.9
45 University of Hawaii  HI 29.2 21.9 7.3
9 University of Houston  TX 80.9 59.5 21.4
38 University of Idaho  ID 93.7 84.5 9.2
50 University of Illinois (Urbana-Champaign)  IL 73.1 68.6 4.5
72 University of Iowa  IA 83.3 87.2 -3.9
64 University of Kansas  KS 85.3 84.7 0.6
44 University of Kentucky  KY 92.7 85.3 7.4
47 University of Louisville (Brandeis)   KY 91.4 85.3 6.1
43 University of Maine  ME 95.3 87.8 7.5
3 University of Maryland  MD 77 53.8 23.2
28 University of Memphis  TN 86.5 73.2 13.3
41 University of Michigan (Ann Arbor)   MI 77.8 69.4 8.4
68 University of Minnesota (Twin Cities)   MN 81.2 83.2 -2
10 University of Mississippi  MS 90.4 69.3 21.1
34 University of Missouri (Columbia)   MO 89.6 78.9 10.7
36 University of Missouri (Kansas City)   MO 88.6 78.9 9.7
48 University of Montana  MT 95.6 90.4 5.2
51 University of Nebraska–Lincoln   NE 91.6 87.2 4.4
26 University of Nevada  NV 80.2 66.6 13.6
35 University of New Mexico  NM 65.2 54.9 10.3
31 University of North Carolina–Chapel Hill   NC 80.3 68.5 11.8
70 University of North Dakota  ND 87.2 89.9 -2.7
20 University of Oklahoma  OK 86.6 69.9 16.7
37 University of Oregon  OR 86.4 77 9.4
33 University of Pittsburgh  PA 89.9 78.6 11.3
18 University of South Carolina  SC 93 75.7 17.3
67 University of South Dakota  SD 88.4 90.1 -1.7
29 University of Tennessee (Knoxville)   TN 85.7 73.2 12.5
13 University of Texas (Austin)  TX 79.1 59.5 19.6
27 University of Toledo  OH 92.3 78.9 13.4
51 University of Utah (S.J. Quinney)   UT 89.6 85.2 4.4
22 University of Virginia  VA 83.4 67.2 16.2
53 University of Washington  WA 75.4 71.2 4.2
73 University of Wisconsin (Madison)   WI 75.6 80.8 -5.2
60 University of Wyoming  WY 91.7 90.1 1.6
62 Washburn University KS 85.8 84.7 1.1
25 Wayne State University MI 83.7 69.4 14.3
59 West Virginia University  WV 91 89.2 1.8
23 William and Mary Law School  VA 83.1 67.2 15.9

 

 Percent of Whiteness  in LSAC Applications (2002) (Alphabetical Listing)
Rank State Total  White  %Whiteness
26 ALABAMA 892 672 75.3
28 ALASKA 120 89 74.2
31 ARIZONA 1384 1009 72.9
17 ARKANSAS 643 521 81.0
51 CALIFORNIA 11925 5733 48.1
50 CANADIAN PROVINCES 737 388 52.6
21 COLORADO 1510 1190 78.8
30 CONNECTICUT 1461 1068 73.1
41 DELAWARE 283 187 66.1
47 DISTRICT OF COLUMBIA 969 540 55.7
46 FLORIDA 5170 2953 57.1
43 GEORGIA 2788 1738 62.3
54 GUAM 19 3 15.8
53 HAWAII 329 72 21.9
14 IDAHO 284 240 84.5
36 ILLINOIS 4571 3137 68.6
23 INDIANA 1706 1337 78.4
8 IOWA 794 692 87.2
13 KANSAS 756 640 84.7
11 KENTUCKY 1065 908 85.3
40 LOUISIANA 1610 1070 66.5
6 MAINE 295 259 87.8
49 MARYLAND 2440 1313 53.8
27 MASSACHUSETTS 2949 2200 74.6
34 MICHIGAN 2844 1973 69.4
15 MINNESOTA 1435 1194 83.2
35 MISSISSIPPI 701 486 69.3
19 MISSOURI 1566 1236 78.9
1 MONTANA 250 226 90.4
7 NEBRASKA 485 423 87.2
39 NEVADA 548 365 66.6
9 NEW HAMPSHIRE 297 254 85.5
42 NEW JERSEY 3758 2348 62.5
48 NEW MEXICO 375 206 54.9
44 NEW YORK 9329 5761 61.8
37 NORTH CAROLINA 2350 1609 68.5
4 NORTH DAKOTA 169 152 89.9
19 OHIO 3539 2792 78.9
33 OKLAHOMA 847 592 69.9
24 OREGON 839 646 77.0
52 OTHER TERRITORIES 30 7 23.3
22 PENNSYLVANIA 3789 2977 78.6
57 PUERTO RICO 1287 17 1.3
16 RHODE ISLAND 292 242 82.9
25 SOUTH CAROLINA 1051 796 75.7
2 SOUTH DAKOTA 182 164 90.1
56 STATE NOT INDICATED 1899 93 4.9
29 TENNESSEE 1369 1002 73.2
45 TEXAS 6797 4043 59.5
12 UTAH 1131 964 85.2
10 VERMONT 144 123 85.4
55 VIRGIN ISLANDS 17 2 11.8
38 VIRGINIA 3387 2276 67.2
32 WASHINGTON 1936 1379 71.2
5 WEST VIRGINIA 453 404 89.2
18 WISCONSIN 1556 1258 80.
2 WYOMING 152 137 90.1
 Percent of Whiteness  in LSAC Applications (2002) (Ranking)
Rank State Total  White  %Whiteness
1 MONTANA 250 226 90.4
2 SOUTH DAKOTA 182 164 90.1
2 WYOMING 152 137 90.1
4 NORTH DAKOTA 169 152 89.9
5 WEST VIRGINIA 453 404 89.2
6 MAINE 295 259 87.8
7 NEBRASKA 485 423 87.2
8 IOWA 794 692 87.2
9 NEW HAMPSHIRE 297 254 85.5
10 VERMONT 144 123 85.4
11 KENTUCKY 1065 908 85.3
12 UTAH 1131 964 85.2
13 KANSAS 756 640 84.7
14 IDAHO 284 240 84.5
15 MINNESOTA 1435 1194 83.2
16 RHODE ISLAND 292 242 82.9
17 ARKANSAS 643 521 81.0
18 WISCONSIN 1556 1258 80.8
19 MISSOURI 1566 1236 78.9
19 OHIO 3539 2792 78.9
21 COLORADO 1510 1190 78.8
22 PENNSYLVANIA 3789 2977 78.6
23 INDIANA 1706 1337 78.4
24 OREGON 839 646 77.0
25 SOUTH CAROLINA 1051 796 75.7
26 ALABAMA 892 672 75.3
27 MASSACHUSETTS 2949 2200 74.6
28 ALASKA 120 89 74.2
29 TENNESSEE 1369 1002 73.2
30 CONNECTICUT 1461 1068 73.1
31 ARIZONA 1384 1009 72.9
32 WASHINGTON 1936 1379 71.2
33 OKLAHOMA 847 592 69.9
34 MICHIGAN 2844 1973 69.4
35 MISSISSIPPI 701 486 69.3
36 ILLINOIS 4571 3137 68.6
37 NORTH CAROLINA 2350 1609 68.5
38 VIRGINIA 3387 2276 67.2
39 NEVADA 548 365 66.6
40 LOUISIANA 1610 1070 66.5
41 DELAWARE 283 187 66.1
42 NEW JERSEY 3758 2348 62.5
43 GEORGIA 2788 1738 62.3
44 NEW YORK 9329 5761 61.8
45 TEXAS 6797 4043 59.5
46 FLORIDA 5170 2953 57.1
47 DISTRICT OF COLUMBIA 969 540 55.7
48 NEW MEXICO 375 206 54.9
49 MARYLAND 2440 1313 53.8
50 CANADIAN PROVINCES 737 388 52.6
51 CALIFORNIA 11925 5733 48.1
52 OTHER TERRITORIES 30 7 23.3
53 HAWAII 329 72 21.9
54 GUAM 19 3 15.8
55 VIRGIN ISLANDS 17 2 11.8
56 STATE NOT INDICATED 1899 93 4.9
57 PUERTO RICO 1287 17 1.3


 


 

"What Others are Saying"

 

  Newspapers
  Law Related
  Blogs
  Emails and Guestbook 
  Other

 

 

  Newspapers
  YahooNews!
  SportMontana
  Despite Multicultural Society Law Schools Remain Mostly White, Black AmericaWeb.com, April 13, 2004
  Law School Admissions Lack People of Color, WAUSAU DailyHearld
   4/14/04 Marshfield News-Herald (Wis.) A6
  White enrollment in Law School exceeds accepted application for Whites by 22%, study shows, Dayton Defender
  The whitest law schools in the US
  Poor Education Prognosis, Walter E. Williams, Townhall.com
  Report, The BlackFusion.net

 

   Law related (Schools, Journals, etc)
  University of Dayton Releases Report, The LawCrossing
  "Troubling Methodolgy", Jurist PaperChase
  A ranking of 184 US law schools. Some will surprise and/or appall you. (14 April 2004), BuffaloReport
  LawSchool.com
  "Troubling Methodology", Lewis and Clark Law School Law News
  Statistics Confirm Nation's Whitest Law Schools Remain Bastions of Whiteness, Santa Clara Bar Association
  MAJORITY RULES: New Study on Whites in Law School Exposes Stark Contrasts in Enrollment, ABA Journal eReport
  Press Release, National Black Law Students Association
  Report, American for Fair Chance
  Report, CivilRights.org
  New Study Ranks Whitest Law Schools, Tolerance.org

 

   Blogs
  Ouch, Stay of Execution, April 15, 2004
  The Unbearable Whiteness of Law Schools, The Slithery D
  Bacardi, SugarMrPoon
  With a Twist, JD2B
  Law School Diversity, Law and Life
  AndrewRaff WebLog
  Whitey-U,  The Federalist Society chapter at the University of Florida Levin College of Law, April 13, 2004
  TechLawAdvisor
  BlueUniverse (United Kingdon)
  Brian Would be happy in Montana or Maine, waynesoller.blogspot.com
  Criminal Misuse of Space Between Your Ears, Righttothepoint
  The Whitest Law Schools in the United States, ania-china.de
  Flanthrower
  Twitchgamer.com

 

  Emails
  W. Mike Hill, II,  Law Student
  Other
  African American Business Directory
  Black Robes, White Justice, PowerPac
  Law Professor Compiles First Ranking of Nation's "Whitest" Law Schools, Alumni Report

 

 

 

 


 

 

UNIVERSITY OF DAYTON LAW PROFESSOR COMPILES FIRST RANKING OF NATION’S "WHITEST" LAW SCHOOLS

DAYTON, Ohio – People looking for minority legal representation will face challenges doing so according to a report revealing a trend that future lawyers will continue to be demographically much different than American society.

University of Dayton law professor Vernellia Randall’s first "Whitest Law Schools" list shows 156 law schools admit a percentage of white students higher than the percentage of whites of "law school age" (21-39 years old) in the United States (69 percent) and the number of whites in the national law school applicant pool (68.1).

The independent report, which was cited by the American Bar Association Journal’s eReport this month, ranked the percentage of white students at 186 law schools in the United States and Puerto Rico. However, only historically white law schools (179) were included in the descriptive statistics. Historically black colleges and universities and schools in Puerto Rico were specifically excluded from the report.

"The purpose of this report is to measure the extent whites are over-represented in law schools," Randall said.

"It will provide a way of measuring changes and progress in equitable representation of minorities and provide a mechanism for comparing how law schools are training a racially representative group of lawyers as we move toward becoming a ‘nation of minorities,’" said Randall, referring the to latest U.S. Census Bureau estimates that show there will be equal numbers of white non-Hispanics and minorities in the U.S. by 2050.

The University of Montana law school has the highest percentage of white students at 95.6 percent. The University of Maine (95.3), Samford University (94.7), the University of Idaho (93.7), Duquesne University (93.4), the University of South Carolina (93), Northern Kentucky University (92.9), the University of Kentucky (92.7), Marquette University (92.6) and the University of Richmond (92.4) round out the top 10.

The most diverse are the University of Hawaii (29.2 percent), the University of the District of Columbia (38.5), St. Thomas University (52.2), Western State University (56.7), the University of Southern California (57.3), Whittier Law School (57.9), Queens College (59.5), Columbia University (60.0), Loyola (Calif.) Law School (60.8) and Santa Clara University (60.9).

The report states, "While it might be expected that many of the top 10 whitest law schools are from states or regions that have very few minorities, such as the University of Maine, in fact, half the top 10 are in the south, which has a significant minority population."

The University of Maine has fewer whites in the law school (-0.59 percent) than its state has whites of "law school age," but still remained on the list.

"All schools assert that they are national or regional schools and the New England region has 83.9 percent whites who are law school age," Randall explained. "Thus, Maine has 10 percent more white students than the white law school age population in the New England region."

Law school admissions relative to state or regional demographics are examined as well to determine the "excess whiteness" of a school. Randall found that Texas Tech University leads with 38.3 percent more white students than the number of whites of law school age in the state of Texas. Two other Texas schools — University of Houston and University of Texas — follow with 33.5 and 31.7 percent excess whiteness, respectively.

Based on all public law schools in a state, South Carolina is determined by the study to be the whitest state with nearly 28.7 percent more whites attending law school in the state than the percentage of whites in the 21-39 age range.

"Significant excess whiteness in public law schools raises questions about how well these tax-supported schools are meeting their obligations to all the citizens of their respective states," Randall said.

The information sources for the report are the 2004 American Bar Association’s Law School Admission Council (LSAC) guide, the LSAC National Statistical Report 1998-99 through 2003-03 and the 2000 U.S. Census.

For the report, anyone listed as "unknown" is counted as white.

"Questions have been raised about the methodology of counting ‘unknowns’ as whites," explained Randall, who specializes in the area of race and racism in American law. "’Unknown’ presented a problem because including them as white allowed schools with large number of whites who failed to report their race to look less ‘white.’ I decided to count ‘unknown’ as ‘white’ as not to penalize schools who have most of their applicants reporting race or provide incentives for schools to move the reporting of students into ‘unknown.’" Plus, I wanted to have a consistent methodology, and this approach has been used by other diversity ranking systems."

Elite law schools fared better with the U.S. News and World Report’s top 10 law schools, averaging a ranking of 138. The top-ranked U.S. News school, Yale, ranked No. 160 on the whitest law schools list at 66.9 percent.

 

 


 

LSATMisuse and Discrimination

 

 

 

 


 

Discrimination in Law School Admission

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Vernellia R. Randall
Founder and Editor
Professor Emerita of Law
The University of Dayton School of Law

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