The cumulative effect of these legal doctrines and medical ethics default rules on the practice of hospitals accommodating patients' racial preferences is compounded by EMTALA which imposes specific treatment obligations on Medicare-participating hospitals offering emergency services. In 1986, Congress enacted EMTALA because of concerns about widespread patient dumping--hospitals' denial of emergency care to the indigent, including the transfer or discharge of emergency patients on the basis of high anticipated diagnosis or treatment costs. The law creates a duty of hospitals to perform a medical screening examination when requested by an individual who arrives in the emergency department in order to determine whether an emergency medical condition exists or whether the individual is experiencing active labor. EMTALA applies to anyone in need of medical treatment, regardless of citizenship, legal status, or ability to pay.

      Notably, the EMTALA-imposed duties apply not only to those who come to an emergency department presenting an emergency medical condition but also to any individual who arrives anywhere on the hospital premises requesting medical treatment, irrespective of whether the person is visibly in need of emergency care. The law establishes no duty to provide continuing medical treatment; however, if, during the EMTALA-mandated medical screening an emergency medical condition or active labor is diagnosed, then it is incumbent on the hospital either to stabilize the individual and provide emergency care or to arrange to transfer the patient, with her consent, to a facility that is able to provide appropriate treatment. A physician must certify in writing that the medical benefits of the transfer outweigh the risks to the patient. In addition, the receiving hospital must be capable of providing the needed treatment and must agree to the transfer. A patient also has the right under EMTALA to request a transfer. BBefore the hospital can exercise this option, however, it must first provide the treatment necessary to minimize the risks posed by the transfer.