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Robert B. Porter*

The Demise of the Ongwehoweh and the Rise of the Native Americans: Redressing the Genocidal Act of Forcing American Citizenship upon Indigenous Peoples, 15 Harv. BlackLetter L.J. 107-183 (1999)(citations omitted).

Editor's note: This article has over 400 footnotes. The footnotes have been edited out for presentation in this forum. I encourage you to see the original article for not only the scholarly documentation but the extensive explanations that Professor Porter provided in his footnotes.



Most usually, they are incorporated with the victorious nation, and become subjects or citizens of the government with which they are connected. The new and old members of the society mingle with each other; the distinction between them is gradually lost, and they make one people.

--Chief Justice John Marshall, writing for the U.S. Supreme Court in Johnson v. M'Intosh (1823)

Can we fulfill the promise of America by embracing all our citizens of all races, ... [C]an we become one America in the 21st century? Can we define what it means to be an American, not just in terms of the hyphen showing our ethnic origins but in terms of our primary allegiance to the values America stands for and values we really live by? Living in islands of isolation ... is not the American way.

--President William Jefferson Clinton, announcing his Initiative on Race (1997)

Vernellia R. Randall
Founder and Editor
Professor Emerita of Law
The University of Dayton School of Law

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