Policies Affecting Cuban Americans

1899 to 1932 Early Immigration Period
1961 to 1975 First Wave of Refugees
1965 to 1973 Second Wave of Refugees
1980 to 1984 Third Wave of Refugees


EARLY IMMIGRATION PERIOD

1899 Spanish-Cuban-American War-U.S. intervention ended Spanish rule of Cuba; U.S. administration of island
1932 Good neighbor Policy of Roosevelt administration


FIRST WAVE OF REFUGEES

1961 Diplomatic relations broken between the United States and Cuba
1961 -1975 U.S. Cuban Refugee Program
1962 Commercial air flights between the United States and Cuba ended, as did open immigration


SECOND WAVE OF REFUGEES

1965 President Lyndon B. johnson signed a "memorandum of understanding" paving the way for airlift
1965 -1973 Cuban refugee airlift program sponsored by U.S. government
1966 Cuban Refugee Readjustment Act


THIRD WAVE OF REFUGEES

1980 Mariel boatlift; temporary refugee centers created; special refugee status for Cubans ended when boatlift ended

Refugee Act of 1980

1984 U.S. immigration and Naturalization Sercide ruled mariel "entrants" eligible to apply for permanent resident status under 1966 Cuban Refugee Readjustment Act [Back]


Policies Affecting Central and South Americans

1965 Immigration and Naturalization Act limited annual Western Hemisphere immigration
1976 Amendment to 1965 Immigration and Naturalization Act limited annual immigration for each separate nation in the Western Hemisphere
1978 Congress raised Western Hemisphere annual limit slightly
1979 20,000 Nicaraguans afforded relief from deportation and viewed as political refugees
1980 Refugee Act
1984 Supreme Court held that to avoid deportation an alien must show "clear probability" that he or she would fact torture, death, or other severe persecution upon returning home
1986 Immigration Reform and Control Act
1987 Amnesty program went into effect

Supreme Court ruled in INS v. Cardoza-Fonesca that an alien who demonstrated "well founded fear" of persecution upon return to his or her homeland could be eligible for asylum in the United States

1990 Immigration Act

New hearings were to be set for 150,000 illegal aliens from Guatemala and El Salvador who were denied political asylum from 1980 to 1990 [Back]


 

Policies Affecting Puerto Ricans on the Mainland

1898 Treaty of Paris - Spain ceded Puerto Rico to the United States as part of the agreement ending the Spanish-American War
1900 Foraker Act made Puerto Rico an unincorporated territory of the United States cans eligible for the draft; allowed both houses of the Puerto Rican legislature to be chosen through popular election, but the governor and other top-ranking officials were still appointed
1932 Puerto Rican Reconstruction Administration
1947 Jones Act amended-popular election of Puerto Rican governor
1952 Puerto Rico established as a U.S. commonwealth (free associated state)
1965 Voting Rights Act
1968 Bilingual Education Act (Amendment to title I of the Elementary and Secondary Education Act of 1965) [Back]

 



Policies Affecting Mexican Americans

1845 to 1942 ACCOMMODATION TO MINORITY STATUS
1945 to 1965 THE ORIGINS OF CHALLENGE
1967 to 1990 SOCIAL AND POLITICAL ACTION

 

FIRST PHASE: ACCOMMODATION TO MINORITY STATUS

1845 United States annexed Texas, which had declared itself independent of Mexico in 1836
1848 Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo
1853 Gadsden Purchase-additional land bought from Mexico
1924 U.S. Border patrol established
1929-1935 major effort at enforcement of 1924 restrictions, thousands of Mexican Americans and their families repatriated, most without court hearings
1942 Bracero program

 

SECOND PHASE: THE ORIGINS OF CHALLENGE

1944 War Labor Board ended discriminatory wage rates, siding with the labor union (CIO)
1945 Mendez et al. v. School District of Orange County et al. - federal court ruled segregation of Mexican Americans in public schools illegal
1948 Delgado v. The Bastrup Independent School District - federal court ruled segregation of Mexican Americans in public school illegal
l953 Supreme Court ruled in Pete Hernandez case that the Fourteenth Amendment applied not just to African Americans but to Mexican Americans and others as well
1954 "Operation Wetback" - U.S. Immigration nd Naturalization Service launched massive program to deport illegal Mexican immigrants
1964 Bracero program expired by statute
1965 Immigration and Naturalization Act - first U.S. limitation on the annual number of Western Hemisphere immigrants

 

THIRD PHASE: SOCIAL AND POLITICAL ACTION

1967 Bilingual Education Act
1968 Elementary and Secondary Education Act
1970 Cisneros v. Corpus Christi Independent School District - court ruled de jure segregation existed and dual school system had to be desegregated
1974 Ethnic Heritage Act

Supreme Court decision in Lau v. Nichols affirmed legal right to education for children with English language problems

1975 Amendment to Voting rights Act of 1965-protected "language groups"
1982 Supreme Court upheld lower court decision requiring Texas to institute bilingual education in case brought by Limited English Proficiency of Mexican-American Youth
1986 Immigration Reform and Control Act-amnesty program, employer sanctions, guest-worker program
1990 Immigration Act-continued family reunification preference category [Back]



Policies Affecting Dominican Americans

1965 Immigration Act limited
1976 Amendment to 1965 Immigration Act limited annual immigration for each separate nation in the Western Hemisphere
1978 Congress raised Western Hemisphere annual limit slightly
1986 Immigration Reform and Control Act
1987 Amnesty program went into effect [Back]