White American: Law and Policies

COLONIAL CARRYOVERS

1783

George Washington proclaimed open door policy

U.S. Constitution gave federal government right to control immigration and Congress power to set naturalization policy

1790

First naturalization act

1795

Residency requirement for naturalization extended

1798

Residency requirement extended again

Alien and Sedition Acts

1819

Immigration Act

THE OPEN DOOR: 1820-1880

1862

Homestead Act

1864

Importing of contract labor legalized

1866

Bureau of Immigration established to aid new arrivals

1875

First federal restrictions on immigration

 

EARLY CONTROL: 1880-1920

1882

Immigration Act

1885

Foran Act-end of imported contract labor

1907

Immigration exclusionary categories expanded

Head tax increased

Congress established the Dillingham Commission

1917

Immigration Act

 

NATIONAL ORIGINS - PHASE ONE: 1920-1951

1921

Immigration Act (Johnson Act)

1924

Immigration Act (Johnson-Reed Act)

1929

Quotas recalculated

1940

Immigration Service moved to Justice Department

Alien Registration Act (Smith Act)

1941

Fair Employment Practices Commission established

1948

Displaced Persons Act

1950

Amendments to Displaced Persons Act

 

NATIONAL ORIGINS-PHASE TWO: 1952-1964 AND THE CIVIL RIGHTS ERA

1952

Immigration and Nationality Act (McCarran-Walter Act)

1953

Refugee Relief Act

1954

Hungarian Refugee Act

Supreme Court ruled in Brown v. Board of Education

1957

Refugee-Escapee Act

Civil Rights Act

1960

Civil Rights Act

1961

Executive Order No. 10925: Committee on Equal Employment Opportunity

1962

Executive Order No. 11063: Committee on Equal Opportunity in Housing

1963

Executive Order No. 11114: Equal Employment Opportunity

1964

Civil Rights Act

Title I: Voting Rights

Title IV: Education

Title V: Commission on Civil Rights extended and given charge as national clearinghouse of information

Title VI: Federally assisted programs could not discriminate on the basis of race

Title VII: Equal Employment Opportunity

Title VIII: Registration and voting statistics to be compiled by U.S. Bureau of the Census

 

THE END OF IMMIGRATION QUOTAS: 1965- AND THE RISE OF AFFIRMATIVE ACTION

1965

Immigration and Naturalization Act

Voting Rights Act

Department of Housing and Urban Development (HUD) Act

1968

Presidentially appointed Kerner Commission on Civil Disorders cited white racism as major cause of urban unrest

Civil Rights Act: Fair Housing Act

Bilingual Education Act

1969

Supreme Court ruling called for "all deliberate speed," with educational desegregation to occur at once

Executive Order No. 111458 created a structure for the Office of Minority Business Enterprises within the Department of Commerce

1971

Supreme Court upheld lower court decision in Swann v. Charlotte-Mecklenburg Board of Education

Supreme Court ruled in Griggs v. Duke Power Co.

Executive Order No. 11625 provided definition of minority business and

apparatus for collection of data regarding such firms

1972

Equal Employment Opportunity Act

Ethnic Heritage Act

1974

Equal Educational Opportunities Act

Housing and Community Development Act

Jackson-Vanick Act

1975

Amendment to Voting Rights Acts of 1965 protected "language groups"

Comprehensive Employment and Training Act targeted people of limited English speaking ability

1976

Home Mortgage Disclosure Act

Equal Credit Opportunity Act

Supreme Court ruled on Runyon v. McCrary

Immigration and Naturalization Act Amendments

1977

Community Reinvestment Act

Public Works Employment Act-10 percent of federally funded public works contracts set aside for minority business

1978

Immigration and Naturalization Act amendments

Supreme Court decision on The Regents of the University of California v. Bakke

Supreme Court ruled on United States Steelworkers of America v. Weber

1980

Refugee Act

Supreme Court ruled on Fullilove v. Klutznick

1982

Voting Rights Act extended

1984

Supreme Court decision on Firefighters Local Union No. 1794 (Memphis, Tennessee) v. Stotts

1986

Immigration Reform and Control Act

Supreme Court decision on International Association of Firefighters v. City of Cleveland

Supreme Court decision on New York City v. Sheet Metal Worker's Union

1987

Supreme Court decision on United States v. Paradise

Supreme Court decision on Johnson v. Transportation Agency, Santa

Clara, California

1989

Soviet refugee ceiling raised

Supreme Court ruling on Price Waterhouse v. Hopkins

Supreme Court ruling on Wards Cove Packing Co. v. Atonia

Supreme Court ruling on Martin v. Wilkes

1990

Immigration Act

Soviet refugee ceiling raised