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ExclusionsA  school district's contribution to the School-to-Prison pipeline is directly related to the number of exclusions. In this report, exclusions are expulsions, out-of-school suspensions, emergency removal by district personnel, and removal by hearing officer.

Every instance of an exclusion disrupts a student's education. Exclusions are particularly problematic for preschool through 3rd grade.[1] It is during these initial years that students lay the foundation for their academic success. Research has shown that suspensions in the 9th grade are also problematic in that even one instance of exclusion significantly increases the likelihood of school dropout.[2] Of course, dropping out is correlated with incarceration. Thus, an exclusion grade is calculated to quantify the extent of the School-to-Prison pipeline problem.

To determine the exclusion grade, first an exclusion score was calculated, using the following formula:

Overall Exclusion  Grade  minus  
(Preschool-3rd Grade Exclusion Penalty +  9th Grade Exclusion Penalty)