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  Vernellia R. Randall
Co-founder, Racial Justice Now!
Professor Emerita of Law, The University of Dayton School of Law

 For More Information on
Racial Justice Now! and School Discipline:  RJNOhio.org

 

 

 

Summit Academy School - Lorain

IRN 000609

 Grade F
30.3

 

Organization Type Community (Charter) School
Typology of Public Districts Not Applicable

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 2019 Ohio School Discipline Report Card for
Summit Academy School - Lorain (000609)
Numerical
Score
Percentage of Total
Overall Discipline Grade 30.3  
Exclusion Grade -22.3 40%
Subjective Discipline Grade 31 25%
Racial Disparity Grade 90 35%

 
The Ohio School Discipline Report card evaluates three components: exclusions, subjective behavior, and racial disparity.

  • Exclusions: Exclusion is the combined rate of out of school suspensions,  expulsions, emergency removal by a hearing officer and removal by district/school personnel. There is also a penalty for any exclusions in pre-kindergarten through 3rd grade and a penalty for excessive exclusions in the 9th grade.
  • Subjective Discipline: When a student is disciplined, the behavior prompting the discipline can be either objective (i.e., weapon on the premises) or subjective (i.e., insubordination). Exclusion for subjective behavior is problematic because subjective standards are more likely to be influenced by explicit and implicit biases. We calculated the subjective behavior grade based on the percentage of exclusions that was for disruptive/disobedient behavior, harassment/intimidation, and unwelcome sexual conduct.  We also had a penalty for exclusions for tardiness.
  • Racial Disparity:  Racial disparity evaluates the difference in exclusion based on race. The expectation is that whatever discipline occurs there is not a racial difference in the district. Racial disparity is  measured by dividing the rate of the racial group with the highest exclusions by the rate of the racial group with the lowest exclusions

For more explanation see the Introduction to the report or the report's discussion of Overall Discipline Grade

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Exclusion Grade for Summit Academy School - Lorain (000609)

A  school district's contribution to the School-to-Prison pipeline is directly related to the number of exclusions. In this report, exclusions are expulsions, out-of-school suspensions, emergency removal by district personnel, and removal by hearing officer.

Every instance of an exclusion disrupts a student's education. Exclusions are particularly problematic for preschool through 3rd grade. It is during these initial years that students lay the foundation for their academic success. Research has shown that suspensions in the 9th grade are also problematic in that even one instance of exclusion significantly increases the likelihood of school dropout. Of course, dropping out is correlated with incarceration. Thus, an exclusion grade is calculated to quantify the extent of the School-to-Prison pipeline problem.

To determine the exclusion grade, first an exclusion grade was calculated, using the following formula:

Overall Exclusion Grade  minus  
(Preschool-3rd Grade Exclusion Penalty +  9th Grade Exclusion Penalty)

 

NOTE:  Some districts, instead of reporting the exact number of discipline occurrences and enrollment numbers, reported: "< 10".  We took that to mean "less than 10" disciplinary occurrences in the particular category.   To calculate a rate, we arbitrarily assigned a value of "3" for all districts that reported "less than 10" in discipline occurrences and assigned a value of "5" for all districts that reported "less than 10" in enrollment.

For more explanation,  see the report's discussion of  Exclusion Grade.


 2019 Ohio School Discipline Report Card for
Summit Academy School - Lorain (000609)

Exclusion Final Grade  -22.3
Penalty Overall 22.3  The Exclusion penalty includes 0 for preschool to 3rd grade penalty plus 22.3 for 9th grade penalty.
Initial Grade 0  
Exclusions Rate 117 Summit Academy School - Lorain had 117 exclusions for every 100 students.
Pre-school to 3rd Grade Exclusions  
Preschool to 3rd-grade Exclusions Rate Summit Academy School - Lorain had exclusions for every 100 pre-school through 3rd grade students.
Preschool to 3rd-grade Exclusions Penalty 0 Explanation of Preschool to 3rd Grade Penalty
9th Grade Exclusions  
9th Grade Exclusion Rate 148.6 Summit Academy School - Lorain had 148.6 exclusions for every 100 9th grade students.
9th Grade Exclusion Penalty 22.3 Explanation of 9th Grade Penalty

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 Subjective Discipline Grade for  Summit Academy School - Lorain (000609)

The subjective discipline grade is the percent of exclusions based on subjective behavior (that is the number of exclusions based on subjective behavior divided by the total number of exclusions). Exclusions are the combination of expulsions, out-of-school suspensions, Emergency Removal by District Personnel and removal by hearing officers. 

In 2019, the articulated reasons for exclusions fit into four categories: 
(1) Subjective Behavior
(2) Violence to person or property
(3) Drug, Alcohol and Tobacco and
(4) Truancy

Discipline-based on subjective behavior is more likely to be impacted by implicit and explicit racial biases.  Given the significant long term impact of missing school, exclusions from school for subjective behavior should be kept to a minimum.  The subjective discipline exclusion grade was based on the percentage of total discipline occurrence minus a penalty for exclusion for truancy. Suspending someone for Truancy is to continue to impose risks on a vulnerable population.

NOTE:  Some districts, instead of reporting the exact number of discipline occurrences and enrollment numbers, reported: "< 10".  We took that to mean "less than 10" disciplinary occurrences in the particular category.   To calculate a rate, we arbitrarily assigned a value of "3" for all districts that reported "less than 10" in discipline occurrences and assigned a value of "5" for all districts that reported "less than 10" in enrollment.

 

For more explanation,  see the report's discussion of  Subjective Behavior Grade.

2019 Ohio School Discipline Report Card for
Summit Academy School - Lorain (000609)
     
Subjective Behavior Final Grade  31
Truancy Penalty 0  This penalty  for Summit Academy School - Lorain is based on 0% of their exclusions being on truancy.
Initial Grade 31
   
Subjective Behavior Exclusions Percent 69%

This report coded the following as  subjective Behavior:

  • Disobedient/Disruptive Behavior
  • Harassment/Intimidation, and 
  • Unwelcome Sexual Conduct
    At Summit Academy School - Lorain, 69% of the exclusions were based on subjective behavior.
Violence Behavior Exclusions Percent 22.6%

Violence Behavior is "Violence to Person or Property". 

This report coded the following as Violence behavior:

  • False alarm/Bomb threats
  • Fighting/Violence
  • Serious Bodily Injury
  • Theft
  • Use/Possession of explosive/incendiary/poison gas
  • Use/Possession of a Gun
  • Use/Possession of weapon other than gun/explosive
  • Vandalism and Firearm Look-a-like
    At Summit Academy School - Lorain, 22.6% of the exclusions were based on violent behavior.
Tobacco, Drugs, Alcohol Exclusions Percent 8.300000000000001%

This report coded the following as Tobacco, Drugs, and Alcohol:

  • Use/Possession of alcohol
  • Use/Possession of other drugs and
  • Use/Possession of tobacco
    At Summit Academy School - Lorain, 8.300000000000001% of the exclusions were based on tobacco, drugs and alcohol offensives.
     
Truancy Exclusions Percent 0% At Summit Academy School - Lorain, 0% of the exclusions were based on Truancy. 

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Racial Disparity Grade for Summit Academy School - Lorain (000609)

 

The racial disparity grade is based on a determination of how much racial difference there is in the exclusion of students from schools/districts. For each school, a rate per 100 students was calculated for each of the seven racial groups recognized by the State of Ohio: American Indian or Alaskan Native, Asian, Black, Hispanic, Multiracial, Pacific Islander and white.   Then for each school, the racial group with the highest exclusion rate was identified.  A racial disparity ratio was calculated; that is comparing the racial group with the highest exclusion rate to the average exclusion rate for the other racial groups in a particular school.  For more explanation,  see the report's discussion of Racial Disparity Grade.

 

 2019 Ohio School Discipline Report Card
for
Summit Academy School - Lorain
(000609)

Racial Disparity Grade 90
Racial Disparity Ratio 1.1

Hispanic students were 1.1 times more likely to be excluded than the average exclusions for all the other racial groups in Summit Academy School - Lorain.    

Number of Different Racial Groups 4
Highest Exclusion Rate 133.5
Racial Group With Highest Exclusion Rate Hispanic
Average Exclusion Rate for Other Racial Groups 116.8

Racial Group  Exclusions per 100 Students Summit Academy School - Lorain had:
American Indian/Native/Eskimo exclusions for every 100 American Indian/Native/Eskimo students
Asian exclusions for every 100 Asian students.
Black/ African American  128.2 128.2 exclusions for every 100 Black/African American students.
Hispanic/ Latinx  133.5 133.5 exclusions for every 100 Hispanic/Latinx students.
Multiracial / Biracial  200 200 exclusions  for every 100  Multiracial/Biracial students.
Pacific Island exclusions for every 100 Pacific Island students.
White  101.7 101.7 exclusions for every 100 White students.

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Contact  and Other Information
for Summit Academy School - Lorain
(000609)

The information posted below is taken from the Ohio Educational Directory System (OEDS).  It has not been updated and it may no longer be accurate.  You should check the Districts website or Ohio Educational Directory System (OEDS) https://oeds.ode.state.oh.us/SearchOrg (Last Visited: June 25, 2019)

 

Superintendent Name Debra Skul  

Address

346 Illinois Ave, Lorain, Ohio, 44052

City

Lorain

County

Lorain

Organization Phone

(440) 288-0448

Organization Email Address:

diane.soloman@summitacademies.org

 Organization Fax

(440) 288-0997

Superintendent Phone

(330) 670-8470
 Superintendent Email Address
 debra.skul@summitacademies.org
Website Address

https://summitacademies.org/schools/lorain-middle/ 

       
Organizational Type Community (Charter) School
 Typology of Public Districts: Not Applicable

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 For More Information on
Racial Justice Now! and School Discipline:  RJNOhio.org


For information about this specific report contact Professor Vernellia R. Randall

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